PHILOLOGIST – Journal of Language, Literature, and Cultural Studies 2023-02-01T19:58:51+01:00 Biljana Babić Open Journal Systems <p><em>Philologist</em>, founded by the Faculty of Philology, Banja Luka, is an open access, peer-reviewed journal promoting contemporary theoretical and interdisciplinary approaches from the fields of language, literature, and culture, with an international editorial board.</p> <p>We kindly invite you to make your academic contribution and improve the quality of our journal.</p> <p>The <em>Philologist </em>journal has been registered in the list of the <a href=""><strong>International Committee of Slavists</strong></a>. It has also been indexed in the <a href=""><strong>ERIH PLUS</strong></a> list since March 2016.</p> <p><em>Philologist </em>journal is published biannually, in June and in December. Papers can be submitted over the course of a year and should be sent to the following address: <strong></strong>.</p> <p>We also invite you to join us on Facebook page of the <em>Philologist</em> (<a href="">LINK</a>) and recommend us to your colleagues, who might be interested in sending their contributions and browsing through the journal contents.</p> LINGUISTICS AND DIGITAL MEDIA DISCOURSE STUDIES – THEORY AND PRACTICAL EXPERIENCE 2023-02-01T19:48:46+01:00 Страхиња Р. Степанов <p>LINGUISTICS AND DIGITAL MEDIA DISCOURSE STUDIES – THEORY AND PRACTICAL EXPERIENCE</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2023 SYSTEMATIC BIBLIOGRAPHY OF PAPERS ON PUBLISHED DIALECT MATERIAL 2023-02-01T19:50:27+01:00 Слађана Цукут <p>SYSTEMATIC BIBLIOGRAPHY OF PAPERS ON PUBLISHED DIALECT MATERIAL</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2023 RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN FORM AND MEANING OF LANGUAGE EXPRESSIONS IN TERMS OF CONTEMPORARY LINGUISTIC APPROACHES 2023-02-01T19:52:09+01:00 Горан Б. Милашин <p>RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN FORM AND MEANING OF LANGUAGE EXPRESSIONS IN TERMS OF CONTEMPORARY LINGUISTIC APPROACHES</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2023 TOWARDS DEVELOPING LITERARY ONOMASTICS: THE WORLD OF NAMES IN THE POETRY BY RADOMIR ANDRIĆ 2023-02-01T19:53:46+01:00 Душан Р. Стефановић <p>TOWARDS DEVELOPING LITERARY ONOMASTICS: THE WORLD OF NAMES IN THE POETRY BY RADOMIR ANDRIĆ</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2023 ON THE LITERARY OEUVRE OF PREDRAG STEPANOVIĆ 2023-02-01T19:55:23+01:00 Бојана Б. Вучен <p>ON THE LITERARY OEUVRE OF PREDRAG STEPANOVIĆ</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2023 IN THE REALM OF BOOKS – ON THE FIRST ISSUE OF THE JOURNAL VERZAL 2023-02-01T19:57:06+01:00 Данијела Д. Јелић <p>IN THE REALM OF BOOKS – ON THE FIRST ISSUE OF THE JOURNAL VERZAL</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2023 BROTHER OR CHAVAL: WHAT DO WE KNOW ABOUT THE SPEECH OF THE YOUNG? 2023-02-01T19:58:51+01:00 Даница Д. Трифуњагић <p>BROTHER OR CHAVAL: WHAT DO WE KNOW ABOUT THE SPEECH OF THE YOUNG?</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2023 KEEP A COOL HEAD ABOUT THIS HOT ISSUE – THE ANALYSIS OF METAPHORICAL SENSES IN THE SEMANTIC STRUCTURE OF ADJECTIVES FROM THE DOMAIN OF TEMPERATURE IN ENGLISH AND SERBIAN 2023-02-01T17:27:58+01:00 Ana V. Halas Popović <p>This paper analyses the derivation of metaphoric senses of English and Serbian adjectives primarily denoting a certain degree of temperature as a physical property of objects. The aim of the analysis is to identify conceptual metaphors that have driven the derivation of these senses and compare English and Serbian in terms of conceptualisations of abstract notions using temperature as the source domain. Furthermore, the analysis aims at revealing whether the conceptualisation of an abstract notion using a certain degree of warmth as the source domain activates the conceptualisation of the opposite abstract notion starting from a degree of coldness and vice versa, i.e. to investigate whether there are pairs of opposite metaphors activated in semantic dispersion of the given adjectives. The analysis has shown that there is a significant similarity between English and Serbian regarding the conceptualisation of abstract notions using temperature as the source domain. Still, English displays a greater variety of abstract notions conceptualised in the given way. There are rare cases in which derivations of metaphoric senses of adjectives belonging to the opposite sections of the temperature scale are mutually related in the sense that they are driven by opposite metaphoric patterns.</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2023 LEXICAL PECULIARITY OF SERBIAN DIALECTS OF SOUTHEASTERN HERZEGOVINA 2023-02-01T17:33:43+01:00 E. I. Yakushkina <p>This article is a part of a large study of the linguistic and geographical features of Serbian vocabulary, carried out by the author of this article on the basis of dialect questionnaire materials specially collected for this purpose in 2019-2021. In order to identify the arealogical characteristics of Serbian vocabulary and identify isoglosses passing through the territory of Serbian dialects, in conversations with dialect speakers from various regions of Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Montenegro, and in some cases personally by dialect speakers, questionnaires were filled out based on lexical questions of the Serbo-Croatian Dialect Atlas. The article describes the lexical features of the dialects of two settlements located in southeastern Herzegovina – Ljubinje and Djedići (In addition to the Herzegovina villages described in the work, material from another 20 Serbian settlements in Bosnia and Herzegovina and Serbia, as well as several Croatian ones, is involved in the analysis.). The article highlights the following characteristics of Southeast Herzegoviаn vocabulary: 1) the preservation of Proto-Slavic archaisms, characteristic of the peripheral areas of the Central Slavic area;</p> <p>2) the use of words characteristic of the west of the Central Slavic area and uncharacteristic of its eastern part; 3) the use of words characteristic of the regions near the Adriatic coast; 4) the widespread use of lexical doublets, namely the use of words with different areal characteristics in the dialect. Based on the comparison of questionnaires from Ljubinje and Djedići with questionnaires from other researched points, we can distinguish several types of areas, which include south-eastern Herzegovina. 1) the south-western area; 2) the east Herzegovian area: unity with the dialect of the village of Mosorovići; 3) the western area; 4) the peripheral (in the broad sense of the word, including the dialects west of Drina and the dialects of (south) eastern Serbia); 5) Bosnian-Slavonian 6) eastern (uniting the dialects of eastern Herzegovina, Bosnia and Serbia). Typical, however, is the case of overlapping, or interference, of the western and eastern or central and peripheral areas.</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2023 THE ANALYSIS OF ERRORS IN GENDER OF THE CONGRUENT WORD IN A NOUN PHRASE IN SERBIAN AS A FOREIGN LANGUAGE 2023-02-01T17:44:18+01:00 Biljana M. Babić <p>This paper carries out a morphological and syntactic analysis of errors in the form of a dependent member of a nominal phrase, specifically – in gender of the congruent word. The corpus has been formed through the excerption of material from 503 assignments written by students who have taken an intensive course in Serbian as a foreign language (at level A1 and A2) at the Centre for Serbian as a Foreign Language at the Faculty of Philosophy in Novi Sad. The aims of the analysis are as follows: identification of errors, systematisation according to types, quantitative and statistical analysis, presentation of analysis results according to types of errors, frequency of occurrence and the students’ first language (since the participants are ethnically and linguistically heterogeneous). Another aim is to compare, as far as possible, the analysis outcome with results of previous analyses of errors in gender of the congruent word in language production by students with Hungarian as their first language learning Serbian as their non-native language. Since there is no category of gender in Hungarian, it is pointed out that the acquiring of this category is especially difficult for speakers of this language. The analysis has shown that: foreign students incorrectly use male gender forms most frequently (45,5%), while the incorrect use of female and neutral gender is completely equal (27,2% per gender). Considerable similarities in errors have been established between foreign students and students with Hungarian as their first language. What was previously determined as the most frequent error among students of Hungarian nationality in Serbia has now been confirmed in the case of foreign students as well, including students whose first language is Hungarian regardless of whether they live here or come from Hungary.</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2023 VOT ÉTO DA! SOME REMARKS ON ASSESSMENT IN RUSSIAN 2023-02-01T17:51:55+01:00 Iryna Lenchuk Amer Ahmed <p>This article investigates assessment in Russian as a type of social action by using the approach to linguistic relativity where the diversity of lexicosyntactic resources available to the speakers of natural languages brings about different collateral effects to the social act of assessment. An analysis of selected samples of a Russian spoken corpus presented in this paper shows that specific lexicosyntactic resources available to the speakers of Russian, such as flexible word order and particles (e.g. da, nu, vot, to), have specific collateral effects. In addition to building agreement in assessment, these lexicosyntactic resources (i) create the context of closeness where more can be said with less overtly expressed linguistic means, and (ii) intensify the social act of assessment by making it more emotionally charged.</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2023 MISTAKES OF FOREIGNERS IN THE USE OF THE SERBIAN LANGUAGE IN THE MEDIA (ON THE EXAMPLE OF ARNAUD GOUILLON) 2023-02-01T17:57:47+01:00 Aleksandar M. Novaković Jelena M. Stošić <p>The subject of this paper is the analysis of Arnaud Gouillon's mistakes in the first few years of learning Serbian as a foreign language, with the aim of identifying, classifying and statistical analysis of mistakes in the years before and after moving to the Republic of Serbia. In this paper, we used the descriptive method, the method of theoretical analysis with the technique of video content analysis and the method of contrast. The research material consisted of a total of 35 videos from Arnaud Gouillon's YouTube channel, published in the period from 2011 to 2013. The analysis of the research results showed us a tendency to reduce the number of errors in the years after relocation. In other words, the recorded number of errors on the morphological, syntactic, lexical and stylistic level is inversely proportional to the time of use of the Serbian language during public appearances, which once again showed that its application in the original linguistic and cultural environment appears as an important precondition for successful mastering.</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2023 FIGURATIVE USE OF LANGUAGE IN INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY: A CORPUS-BASED STUDY 2023-02-01T18:02:46+01:00 Vesna V. Bulatović Danijela M. Prošić-Santovac Tanja P. Kaurin <p>New technologies have pervaded many aspects of modern life and influenced human communication, emotions and language. This close interaction between people and computers is reflected in language, in the use of computing terms applied to human emotions, relationships and everyday activities. Metaphor plays an important role in the language of information technology and it is widely used in creating new vocabulary. This paper explores conceptual metaphors in order to determine their usage in the information technology research papers, through describing similarities and differences in the conceptualisation of these metaphors within two languages. The aim of the paper is to quantitatively and qualitatively present conceptual metaphors, regarding computers and the Internet, found in ten research papers written in English and in Serbian. These expressions are compared with respect to their frequency in the papers and the degree to which metaphorical vocabulary is present in analysed research papers. The results indicate that all authors have used conceptual metaphors, although papers in Serbian include a slightly larger number of expressions than papers in English. Apart from differences and diversities, the analysis also identifies a remarkably similar structure of the mapping in both languages.</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2023 MODAL AUXILIARIES IN SELECTED NEWSPAPER EDITORIALS ON MEDICAL BRAIN DRAIN IN NIGERIA 2023-02-01T18:07:59+01:00 Olufunke O. Fagunleka David Olorunsogo <p>This paper explores the conscious deployment of modal auxiliary verbs by the media to project stances and opinions on the topical issue of medical brain drain in Nigeria. Data, which comprised a total of 12 editorials on the issue of brain drain in the Nigerian health sector, were sourced from four Nigerian newspapers (Punch, The Guardian, Daily Trust, The Sun) published between 2018-2022. The identified modal verbs were categorised based on Palmer’s (1986; 1990) classification of modality: deontic, epistemic and dynamic. The modal auxiliaries are used to stir up the emotion of concern, project the duty of government and predictions about doctors’ exodus attempts, and communicate the disposition of the government towards the issue. The editorials are marked with modal auxiliary verbs intended to draw the attention of the public to the responsibilities of the government and the possible outcomes of taking (or not) necessary actions to tackle the menace of medical brain drain.</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2023 VERBS OF DRINKING IN ENGLISH AND IN SERBIAN AS SOURCES OF CONCEPTUAL METAPHORS AND METONYMIES 2023-02-01T18:13:31+01:00 Jelena Lj. Biljetina <p>The aim of this paper is to analyse verbs of drinking in English and in Serbian that are used to express various drinking processes, but that can also be used to express various other processes not related to drinking. In other words, the paper analyses the transferred meaning(s) that the analysed verbs express in both languages in order to identify the other processes expressed by the verbs of drinking. The corpus for the analysis was excerpted from the relevant monolingual dictionaries of English and Serbian and consists of ten verbs of drinking: five English verbs, to drink, to guzzle, to imbibe, to quench, to suck and five Serbian verbs, piti, ispiti, lokati, napiti se, opiti se. The dictionary definitions of the ten verbs were analysed in order to identify the transferred meanings of the verbs. The definitions were then subjected to conceptual analysis with the goal of identifying the conceptual mechanisms (conceptual metaphor or conceptual metonymy) that underly the transferred meanings. The identified meanings were also subjected to contrastive analysis that aimed at identifying the similarities and differences in transferred meanings among the analysed verbs and at identifying their formal correspondents or translation equivalents. The analysis shows that in both languages drinking verbs develop their transferred meanings primarily regarding the concepts of accepting or absorbing an entity and that in most cases such meanings and conceptual mechanisms underlying them show a high degree of equivalence, as the most frequent conceptual mechanism in both languages is conceptual metaphor. However, the differences are mostly observed at the semantic level.</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2023 LA CONCEPTION DIDACTIQUE DES PROJETS DANS LA MÉTHODE #LA CLASSE A2 2023-02-01T18:20:30+01:00 Jovica M. Mikić <p>Dans cet article, nous examinons la conception des projets dans la méthode de FLE pour adolescents, ♯La Classe A2. Après avoir établi huit critères d’analyse, nous considérons les trois aspects suivants de l’objet de la recherche : la prise de positions, de la part des auteurs, concernant le rôle des projets dans la méthode ; la distribution des rubriques destinées aux projets, ainsi que leur contenu, dans le livre de l’élève et dans le guide pédagogique ; l’élaboration détaillée de la démarche méthodologique dans le cadre d’un projet particulier. Une attention particulière portée à la conception des projets est confirmée par les éléments suivants : la référence à des documents didactiques ; la formulation des titres des unités didactiques et des leçons ; la présentation du projet sur la page d’ouverture de l’unité didactique ; les propositions pour sa réalisation par étapes dans les quatre leçons ; les conseils et explications supplémentaires dans le livre du professeur. Dans cette méthode, nous découvrons la concrétisation cohérente des principes relatifs à la perspective actionnelle, selon laquelle les activités langagières prennent leur pleine signification dans la réalisation de tâches contextualisées et authentiques. L’utilisation de cette méthode dans l’enseignement institutionnel du FLE pourrait contribuer à l’innovation du processus de formation, mais en même temps elle nécessiterait le changement partiel de l’approche communicative : la mise en question des objectifs établis, la modification de manières d’enchaîner les activités didactiques, la recherche des modalités d’évaluation pertinentes.</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2023 UN APERÇU DES DÉFIS DE LA TRADUCTION JURIDIQUE: À LA RECHERCHE DES SOLUTIONS 2022-08-28T16:33:21+02:00 Olivera B. Vušović <p>The aim of this article is to establish an overview of the main particularities and difficulties found in the field of legal translation, as well as to examine possible solutions. The introductory considerations relate to the issue of translation and equivalence in general, as well as to the double dimension of the equivalence of a legal text and the notion of functional equivalent. The challenges of legal translation are examined through the combination of six elements: the question of the legal norm and its consequences on translation, the non-concordance of legal concepts between different languages, the specificity and diversity of languages and cultures within which the law is elaborated, the question of equivalence of legal effects, the possibility of translating the law and the variety of fields, a new aspect specific in particular to EU law. Finally, the question of the education of legal translators is considered in the context of the choice between translation and legal skills, or preferably, the fusion of the two.</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2023 PHILOLOGIST – Journal of Language, Literature, and Cultural Studies CULTURAL HERITAGE AS A FRAMEWORK FOR DEVELOPING INTERCULTURALISM AND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION 2023-02-01T18:36:33+01:00 Olja Milošević <p>This paper deals with introducing the cultural heritage of the host country in second or foreign language acquisition and maintains that cultural heritage could provide a framework for developing interculturalism and language skills. It presents the international Erasmus + project and the two units that were delivered in The International School of Belgrade to the two groups of students at different language levels. The implementation of the project had three phases: identifying and recording of host country cultural assets, creation of teaching activities, and teaching the two units. After each unit was taught, the students’ observations were collected and used for the evaluation of the project. During the class discussions, students commented on the host country’s culture, about the studied assets, and about their language development. Students also recorded their comments in writing. The data was used to establish what the students learned about cultural heritage and if the units provided a framework to develop language skills.</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2023 LINGUO-STYLISTIC CHARACTERISTICS OF THE NOVEL UNDER THE PEELING CEILING BY GORAN PETROVIĆ 2023-02-01T18:41:11+01:00 Marija S. Nedeljković <p>The subject of the paper is the linguistic and stylistic features of the novel Under the Peeling Ceiling by Goran Petrović. The aim is to learn: (1) linguistic means used to shape discourse and (2) stylistic specificities of the novel. Linguistic features are considered on: (1) morphological and (2) lexical level. Each of the mentioned language levels has certain stylistic specificities. The results of the analysis showed that, on the morphological level, it is important to consider the use of: (1) verb tenses and their narrative functions (perfect, as well as present and future and with a transposed, preterite meaning) and (2) adjectives (with the syntactic function of attribute and noun part of the predicate), and with the squeeze value of the epithet. The specificity of the novel on the lexical level is shown by the use of expressive lexis (onymic lexis, creations, loanwords, deverbative nouns, diminutives/ hypocoristics, exclamations, pejoratives). The aforementioned language features formed the style of Goran Petrović's narration in the novel Under the peeling ceiling.</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2023 LANGUAGE EDUCATION POLICY AND FOREIGN LANGUAGE TEACHING IN THE REPUBLIC OF SRPSKA 2023-02-01T18:45:08+01:00 Sanja R. Milićević <p>This paper analyses foreign language teaching in the education system of the Republic of Srpska relative to the percent distribution of frequency of individual languages. With primary education being the first and obligatory level of education at which foreign languages are taught, the paper examines the connection between language education policy at the primary education level, social processes and the international position of foreign languages studied in the Republic of Srpska. Available data are compared with the rankings of world languages in terms of their global influence. Similarities and differences between learning outcomes for individual foreign languages after completing primary education are also analysed. The paper points to the basic problems of the language education policy in the Republic of Srpska in relation to foreign language teaching, and recommends systematic collection and analysis of relevant data as the first step in dealing with the issues discussed.</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2023 THE ART OF NOISE AND THE ART OF SILENCE – DON DELILLO’S DEAFENING SOUNDSCAPES 2023-02-01T18:48:51+01:00 Mirna Radin Sabadoš <p>In his Millennial novels (those published after 2000), DeLillo explores different aspects of the human perception of identity and the world we live in. His latest novel, Silence, challenges the conventions which are understood to represent the basis of our understanding of reality – the data, its collection and recording and how it is used to configure the dimension of time. The novel opens as a routine mix of chatter, or noise, and silence as its negative counterpart representing the time passing. However, as the novel unfolds, this seemingly objective view from the outside, delves into personal experiences of the protagonists creating certain soundscapes alternating between the noise and silence, depending more and more on sensory perception rather than on rational processing. With its skeletal structure and utmost reduction of narrative elements, the novel Silence approaches the idea of silence in a similar manner to composer John Cage in his work 4.33 (1952), who researched the idea in the medium of music, an art which like literature relies on rigorous formal features. Silence, for Don DeLillo as well as for Cage is not equal to the lack of content; in contrast, it represents the alternative aspect of sound and/or noise. The silence, as much as the sound, before all, marks our perception of the lapse of time.</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2023 NEW TRENDS IN ITALIAN LITERATURE: FROM ECOCRITICISM TO MIGRANT LITERATURE 2023-02-01T18:52:35+01:00 Nikica N. Mihaljević <p>In the present article the aim is to demonstrate that one of the ways to teach literature today, in the new millennium, when literary studies do not encourage interest among the new generations, could be through its relationship with other sciences, for example, with ecology. Since the 1970's, when ecocriticism was created, in a literary text the idea is to try to analyse the relationship between the individual and nature. Starting from the fact that in nature there are balanced relations, the ecocriticism is trying to overcome the hierarchical order imposed in the society by the secular centralism. The result of this order are the members that are marginalised and oppressed, the victims of the imposition of the concept of the vertical society which implies the dominance of some members over others.</p> <p>In the analysis the aim is to show that there are some contemporary literary texts that witness the attempt of exclusion of some characters, such as, for example, in the migrant literature in Italy, where the characters-immigrants are frequently discriminated. According to ecocriticism, in order to achieve a sustainable society, it is necessary to overcome these dicriminatory mechanism. Therefore, with this paper we try to find some literary examples in which, by the means of the autobiographical testimony, this attempt of dominance is rejected by the characters and they eventually find the way to integrate into the new society as well as to overcome exclusion and discrimination. In the analysis we examine some of these examples that we find in the literary work of the two contemporary authoresses in Italy: Igiaba Scego, and Laila Wadia.</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2023 MUSICAL EKPHRASIS IN THE SERBIAN NOVEL OF THE LATE 20TH – EARLY 21ST CENTURY (THE EXPERIENCE OF A. GATALICA, M. PAVIĆ, G. PETROVIĆ AND G. ĆIRJANIĆ) 2023-02-01T19:01:06+01:00 Natalia Bilyk <p>The multifaceted interrelationships of the various media are now considered to be a particular productive area of comparative strategy. The generalised typology among the types of intermedia at the present stage is considered to be the most fruitful and effective, in particular, ekphrasis and intermedia – a particular manifestation of intermedia, the phenomenon of specific expressive mediation of one media in the figurative field of another. Intermediate format, developed by the interaction of different sign systems and the content encoded by them, mainly – literature and other arts with emphasis on the sign and semantic correspondence of comparisons, has significant artistic effectiveness. A way to realise the ekphrasis of the reception as a description of the case is any kind of art in the literary text. At the same time, the preferred determinant of ekphrasis as a description of a work of art in a literary text is suggested to be its relation to a specific work of authorship, although it also assumes the spread of the ekphrasis to similar or non-existent but genre conventional art variants with a pre-eminent inheritance of the corresponding art. In determining the universal common principles of organising such sovereignty of sign systems, positioned in the status of local variants of different discursive practices in the process of their syncretic interaction in the literary dimension, effective for illuminating the raised issue are primarily the tendencies of the extracurricular direction of literary criticism, initiated by Lotman's semiotic concept, initiated by the first concept, the imposition and intersection of semantic spaces capable of generating new meaning. The empirical plan of ekphrasis is vividly and convincingly actualised in the novels of famous Serbian writers A. Gatalica, M. Pavić, G. Petrović, G. Ćirjanić. Innovative creative experience of artists testifies to a special sophistication, content, accuracy of design and diversity and comprehensibility of meaningful potential, which brings the manifestations of the poetics of syncretism of arts to the organisational components of the poetics of novels in general.</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2023 THE COFFER DAMS AND THE MAKING OF CIVILISED CULTURE REVISITED 2023-02-01T19:05:11+01:00 Ana P. Mužar <p>Through the analysis of Kamala Markandaya’s The Coffer Dams and drawing on the groundbreaking works of the leading postcolonial theorists such as Bhabha, Fanon, Said and Young, this paper explores the East-West power relations in the postcolonial period that has brought about Western technological imperialism perpetuating the dynamics of Orientalism. The aim of this paper is to show how the Eastern stereotyped image is reinforced in the mechanised tech world, emphasising the fact that the binary oppositions such as nature/culture and civilised/uncivilised have survived colonialism spanning into the postcolonial tech age. Like its precursor, the neo-colonial project came to be justified by the need to bring civilisation to the Eastern world, but this time, by means of technological transformation and modernisation. This paper discloses that the Other remains the Other in the postcolonial Western mind because technology, as a new form of power, has sharpened the distinction between Western superiority and Eastern inferiority. Moreover, it is evident that the means may change but the desire to claim, control and curb the land of the Other still remains, as well as the price that has to be paid – that of dehumanisation and mechanisation of human beings.</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2023 AN ECOCRITICAL READING OF THOMAS HARDY’S JUDE THE OBSCURE 2023-02-01T19:08:15+01:00 Nataša V. Ninčetović <p>Jude the Obscure (1895) is traditionally interpreted as Thomas Hardy’s bleakest and most pessimistic novel. From the perspective of ecocriticism, it may be viewed as the author’s endeavour to challenge the dominant anthropocentric attitude of the nineteenth century. Relying on Darwin’s theory of the common origin of species, Hardy believed that people should recognise their connectedness and dependence on the whole living world. The novel implies that man should abandon his self-centeredness and embrace other perspectives. This, however, does not mean that Hardy does not see people as valuable and important. In a world where religion loses its power we should rely on other people. The implication of Jude the Obscure is that the way we treat each other is linked to the way we treat nature. Hardy’s pessimism is the consequence of his realisation that ideas of Darwin were manipulated and (mal)adjusted to society. The character of Jude Fawley is doomed to tragedy due to his hypersensitivity, which is incorrectly perceived as a flaw in the society which promotes autonomy and separateness instead of connectedness and mutual dependence.</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2023 EKPHRASIS IN KEATS’S “ODE ON A GRECIAN URN” 2023-02-01T19:11:09+01:00 Tatjana Z. Ristić <p>In order to fully question the issue of ekphrasis in John Keats’s ”Ode on a Grecian Urn”, this paper begins by giving a brief historical and theoretical framework of ekphrasis, and then analyses a concrete ekphrasis in Keats’s poem. Historically speaking, the meaning of ekphrasis made a large shift in modern times compared to the original. Ancient Progymnasmata do not narrow the term based on subject matter, but rather define it using the category of vividness, enárgeia, and only later through the examinations of ancient ekphrasis of works of spatial arts, in literary texts as well as in rhetorical ones, ekphrasis becomes narrowed to a literary evocation of works of spatial arts. This happens in Spitzer’s analysis of the poem in the second half of the twentieth century, thus proving “Ode on the Grecian Urn” to be a crucial text in rethinking the term. This paper tends to reconcile the original and modern theories of ekphrasis through the poem itself. In a theoretical context, ekphrasis’s share in narration and description, and its discursive features are shown, opening the debate on the common linkage of ekphrasis to description, and alienation from narration. Choosing to address ekphrasis from the perspective of the ekphrastic poetry itself rather than a theoretical point of view, the paper shows how the urn cannot solely be seen as “silent” since it strives to tell a legend, a narrative, which is contained in the urn as an aesthetic object and work of sculptural art. This text does not tend to discover the real models for the ekphrasis, but it does offer some sculptural works and paintings which could have inspired Keats. The text is more inclined toward unveiling the discursive context which could have influenced the poet: the (meta)aesthetics of ancient Greece, derived both from poetry and philosophy. The most important objective of the paper is to offer a new reading of the poem through a critical dialogue with the most accepted readings of the “Ode”, primarily those of Spitzer and Brooks, and through questioning of common places in literary criticism of the poem.</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2023 “FUI SOLDATO. QUESTA PAROLA ESPRIME TUTTO”. ANTIMILITARISMO E NEVROSI IN UNA NOBILE FOLLIA DI IGINIO UGO TARCHETTI 2023-02-01T19:14:26+01:00 Simone Pettine <p>Obiettivo del presente saggio è l’analisi del romanzo Una nobile follia di Iginio Ugo Tarchetti, pubblicato per la prima volta in appendice alla rivista «Il Sole» tra il 1866 e il 1867. La critica si è già occupata in alcune occasioni dell’opera in questione, proponendone sempre una lettura antimilitaristica. Lo stesso Tarchetti, del resto, ideò il volume mosso da un’aperta e violenta polemica nei confronti dell’istituzione militare nel suo complesso (dalla leva obbligatoria agli eserciti permanenti, passando per la vita di caserma); tanto che Roberto Carnero, in anni recenti, ha considerato Una nobile follia un libro volto a demistificare ogni guerra e forma di violenza, al di là delle specifiche motivazioni storiche. La prospettiva adottata in questa sede è però inedita: senza prescindere dalle motivazioni ideologiche di Tarchetti, si tenterà di individuarne la riconferma e resa letteraria nella patologia del protagonista, Vincenzo D. La nevrosi di quest’ultimo viene infatti descritta come perfetta risultante della vita del soldato: Tarchetti descrive abilmente i vari stadi della malattia mentale, dovuta a condizioni storico-sociali sia esterne che interne; il tema della follia troverà poi spazio ancora più ampio, di lì a qualche anno, nel romanzo più famoso dell’autore, Fosca. Gli strumenti adottati nell’analisi sono quelli propri della critica testuale e del close reading.</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2023 DENIS DE ROUGEMONT AND THE WESTERN CONCEPTION OF LOVE 2023-02-01T19:45:32+01:00 Željko M. Šarić <p>This paper analyses the key areas reached by the Swiss author Denis de Rougemont in his famous work Love in the Western World. We critically read de Rougemont's thought that love-passion, as the basic guiding thread of the myth of Tristan and Isolde, still sovereignly rules the unconscious being of modern man, giving him a one-sided vision of the play about love. Following his argumentation, we examine the connections between courtly and chivalrous love, Cathar heresy and troubadour love poetry. Denis de Rougemont contrasts eros, which ignites passion that descends into the darkness of death, with agape, i.e. the Christian love for one's neighbour. We question whether de Rougemont's solution to the problem of love by establishing merciful love as a necessary moral choice can be a satisfactory answer for modern man.</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2023