PHILOLOGIST – Journal of Language, Literature, and Cultural Studies <p><em>Philologist</em>, founded by the Faculty of Philology, Banja Luka, is an open access, peer-reviewed journal promoting contemporary theoretical and interdisciplinary approaches from the fields of language, literature, and culture, with an international editorial board.</p> <p>We kindly invite you to make your academic contribution and improve the quality of our journal.</p> <p>The <em>Philologist </em>journal has been registered in the list of the <a href=""><strong>International Committee of Slavists</strong></a>. It has also been indexed in the <a href=""><strong>ERIH PLUS</strong></a> list since March 2016.</p> <p><em>Philologist </em>journal is published biannually, in June and in December. Papers can be submitted over the course of a year and should be sent to the following address: <strong></strong>.</p> <p>We also invite you to join us on Facebook page of the <em>Philologist</em> (<a href="">LINK</a>) and recommend us to your colleagues, who might be interested in sending their contributions and browsing through the journal contents.</p> Универзитет у Бањој Луци, Филолошки факултет en-US PHILOLOGIST – Journal of Language, Literature, and Cultural Studies 1986-5864 ADRIATICO – DIALOGHI INTERCULTURALI E INTRECCI DI LINGUE <p>Preface</p> Nataša D. Vučenović Giulia Baselica Copyright (c) 2023 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 14 28 17 19 10.21618/fil2328017v AN ITALIAN TRAVELLER DISCOVERING BOSNIA <p>The theme of this paper is the image of Bosnia by Luchino Dal Verme (1838- 1911), a politician, diplomat, geographer and traveller, who in 1903 set off from Italy on a journey across the Adriatic Sea and on to Bosnia. He left a testimony of his experience in the text ‘An Excursion to Bosnia’, published in the Nuova Antologia in 1903.</p> <p>The aim of the paper is to identify odeporic elements in a text of a hybrid nature with elements of geography, history and literature and to show that the perception of this region of the Balkans changed at the beginning of the 20th century. From the wild, primitive and hostile land of the 19th century travellers, the image offered by Luchino Dal Verme changes radically. This affirms the importance of this traveller’s profile, a cultured and informed man. With a considerable cultural background, he observes and accepts the Other and his land, without conditioning.</p> Ljiljana Banjanin Copyright (c) 2023 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 14 28 20 33 10.21618/fil2328020b FREEDOM, THE IDEA OF FATHERLAND AND NATIONAL INDEPENDENCE. THE IMAGE OF SOUTHERN SLAVIC PEOPLES IN THE WRITINGS OF GIUSEPPE MAZZINI <p>Between the end of the 1830s and the beginning of the 1860s, the condition of the Southern Slavs was thoroughly analysed by Giuseppe Mazzini, who strongly believed in a necessary and close connection between the aspiration for unity and independence of peoples subject to foreign domination and the founding principle of nationality. Mazzini's ideas, which originated from his general pro-European vision and, in particular, from his specific interest in the history and expression of the individual Southern Slavic cultures, focused, especially in the 1850s, on the role of the Russian Empire. This paper aims to compare, as far as the Southern Slavic question is concerned, Mazzini's political vision, with reference to his writings, in particular the "Slavic Letters" with the debate animated by Russian Panslavism through the writings by contemporary Russian historians, such as Aleksandr Pypin and Michail Pogodin.</p> Giulia Baselica Copyright (c) 2023 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 14 28 34 46 10.21618/fil2328034b OVERCOMING EMPTINESS IN THE TRANSLATION OF DUBRAVKA UGREŠIĆ <p>The theme of this paper concerns the main aspects of translating a linguistically and culturally hybrid text, using the example of two Dubravka Ugrešić’s books (1949–2023), Karaoke culture and Europe in Sepia. The author addresses contemporary themes in a globalised and increasingly virtual world, while constantly revisiting the Soviet and Yugoslav communist past through her personal experiences. Existing between languages and interpreting such a diverse literary world requires a profound understanding of historical, linguistic, and cultural contexts, as well as translation strategies aimed at bridging the inevitable spatiotemporal gap that arises between the two versions of the text. The main research questions are: what are the criteria for including or excluding different elements of heterolinguism/ plurilingualism in a translated text? By what linguistic means is it domesticated in a culturally and linguistically hybrid text?</p> Olja Perišić Copyright (c) 2023 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 14 28 47 65 10.21618/fil2328047p TRADUKTOLOŠKA ANALIZA ITALIJANSKOG PREVODA ROMANA KRILATI KARAVAN STEVANA BULAJIĆA <p>Rad se bavi traduktološkom analizom italijanskog prevoda romana Krilati karavan (Carovana alata, 1955) Stevana Bulajića iz pera Razije Sarajlić, istaknute prevoditeljke i Antonija Luljija, svestranog intelektualca, pisca i prevodioca. Iako je njen rad bio prvenstveno fokusiran na prevođenje sa italijanskog jezika, Razija Sarajlić oprobala se i u prevođenju na italijanski jezik, sa željom da čitaocima italijanskog govornog područja približi djelić kulture i književnosti bivše Jugoslavije. Analiza prevoda romana Krilati karavan, objavljenog u Italiji 1962. godine, usmjerena je na sagledavanje jezičkih i kulturoloških problema prilikom procesa prevođenja, sa posebnim osvrtom na prenošenje frazeologizama, poređenja, antroponima i kulturnospecifičnih izraza. Jedan od primarnih ciljeva rada jeste skrenuti pažnju na život i djelo Razije Sarajlić u svjetlu tridesetogodišnjice njene smrti. Doprinos koji je Razija Sarajlić dala širenju italijanske kulture i književnosti u Bosni i Hercegovini, ali i na tlu bivše Jugoslavije, ogleda se u velikom broju prevoda kako literature za djecu tako i djela velikana italijanske književnosti, poput Đovanija Verge i Else Morante. Posebno mjesto u njenom prevodilačkom opusu zauzima prevod čuvenog romana Karla Kolodija Le avventure di Pinocchio. Storia di un burratino (Pinokio), objavljen 1957. godine pod okriljem sarajevskog izdavača Narodna prosvjeta, u sklopu prestižne dječije biblioteke „Lastavica”.</p> Zorana Ž. Kovačević Maria V. Fornari Čuković Copyright (c) 2023 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 14 28 66 86 10.21618/fil2328066k SOCIAL NETWORKS AS A LANGUAGE TEACHING TOOL <p>Social networks constitute an intrinsic part of our lives, not only in private aspects, but also professional and academic ones. Digitalisation in various professional and scientific fields, web 2.0, universal mobility and the growing use of multimedia tools in the classroom have led to the use of social networks as teaching material and tools.</p> <p>In this work, the main social networks suitable for language teaching will be illustrated and various possibilities for their use will be indicated to derive maximum benefit from them in the classroom or during the student's independent study. Activities that may include the use of digital applications and the ways in which these platforms can be inserted into the different phases of the lesson will be indicated.</p> <p>Finally, various practical examples of the inclusion of social networks in the classroom will be given, accompanied by intentional reflections to encourage language teachers to include web 2.0 tools among their working methods.</p> Milica M. Marinković Copyright (c) 2023 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 14 28 87 96 10.21618/fil2328087m GENDER AND POWER IN ITALIAN AS A FOREIGN LANGUAGE TEXTBOOKS: A DIACHRONIC PERSPECTIVE <p>This paper analyses, from the perspective of critical discourse analysis and critical pedagogy, the representation of gender hierarchy in two representative Italian as a foreign language textbooks, published between 2002 and 2019. The aim is to examine whether asymmetric power relations are reproduced or reversed through the representation of professions attributed to male and female characters, in order to obtain meaningful data about the approach adopted by the authors and publishing houses. Specifically, we aim to determine whether a progressive and egalitarian tendency in the perception and representation of women and men in the professional sphere can be identified. The analysis reveals significant differences in the approach adopted in the two textbooks and consequently in how gender hierarchies and roles in the professional sphere are constructed. Due to the absence of a gender-sensitive approach, the Qui Italia textbook reproduces and naturalises asymmetric power relations between women and men in the professional sphere. In contrast, the Dieci A1 textbook emerges as an educational material that challenges traditional gender roles in the professional sphere and offers alternative and egalitarian models. The results suggest that progressive trends regarding gender equality in educational materials have evolved over time and that a gender approach is increasingly implemented and valued.</p> Nataša D. Vučenović Copyright (c) 2023 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 14 28 97 115 10.21618/fil2328097v LEXICAL VARIATION AMONG STANDARD LANGUAGE SPEAKERS IN REPUBLIC OF SRPSKA <p>This paper is a part of a larger study of regional variation of the lexicon within the Serbian standard language. About 100 questionnaires were collected for this research from educated speakers of the Serbian language from different cities. The questionnaire contains questions which uncover the use of doublets characteristic of the western and eastern parts of the Serbian linguistic territory, such as željezo and gvožđe, mahune and boranija, kino and bioskop. The paper proposes the analysis of around 60 questionnaires from the Republic of Srpska, namely from Banja Luka (47), Trebinje (7), as well as from Prijedor, Bjelina and East Sarajevo. First, the paper presents a list of investigated regional doublets (200 lexemes), and gives their typological division (phonetic or morphological variants, lexical doublets).</p> <p>Further, a linguageographic analysis of the first questionnaire is proposed and previously analysed in the other paper, and conclusions about the regional characteristics of the lexicon contained in that questionnaire are presented. For example, it is noted that in Prijedor, unlike Trebinje, words as domaća zadaća, duda, hladetina, hlače, ispričnica, kuhar, kuhati, marelice, neodgojen, propuh, ručnik, tekućina, tržnica, tuka, umjetno gnojivo etc., are used.</p> <p>The main content of the paper deals with the analysis of the second questionnaire. For each lexical pair presented in the questionnaire, the statistics of the use of each word in Banja-Luka and Trebinje are given, and based on this, the lexicon characteristic of one and the other city is distinguished (e.g. dan i noć, trougao in Trebinje and maćuhice, trokut in Banja Luka), as well as a group of doublet pairs whose members are used equally often in the west and in the east of the Republic of Srpska (oprosti – izvini). Words which practically do not vary are also described. Sometimes the same word is used in Banja Luka and Trebinje, and sometimes it is the same as in Serbia (putarina), or it may be different (narandža instead of pomorandža).</p> <p>The main conclusion of the research is that the lexicon of the western and eastern type on the territory of the Republic of Srpska is distributed in the form of waves. This means that the use of lexical doublets in Trebinje is more similar to their use in Serbia, while for Banja Luka and Prijedor a higher concentration of western words than in Trebinje is typical.</p> <p>Further research will be focused on the description of the use of these lexemes in other cities of the Republic of Srpska, as well as their variation on the territory of Serbia.</p> E.I. Yakushkina D. Crnjak Copyright (c) 2023 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 14 28 119 134 10.21618/fil2328119j АКЦЕНАТ ЈЕДНОСЛОЖНИХ ИМЕНИЦА МУШКОГ РОДА У ГОВОРУ БАСТАСА <p>У раду је дат детаљан преглед акценатских типова једносложних именица мушког рода у говору босанскограховског села Бастаси. Анализом исцрпно прикупљене дијалекатске грађе овдје се првенствено настоји установити колико су, генерално гледано, акценатски типови наведених именица сродни оним кодификованим, дакле у духу Даничићеве акцентуације. На основу досадашњих истраживања западнијих српских говора (скромних кад су у питању описи акценатских система појединих говора) познато је да се код таквих именица поједина одступања од актуелне акценатске норме и Даничићевих правила углавном своде на уопштавања која су резултат међусобне интерференције различитих акценатских типова, те је та врста уопштавања и овдје сасвим очекивана.</p> <p>Анализирана дијалекатска грађа, осим са стањем код Даничића, поређена је са истраженим сродним српским говорима и сусједним икавским говорима ливањско-дувањског типа.</p> Dragomir V. Kozomara Copyright (c) 2023 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 14 28 135 151 10.21618/fil2328135k ON SOME NONTYPICAL DERIVATIONAL PROCESSES IN SERBIAN <p>This paper dicsusses nonconcatenative morphological processes in the modern Serbian language. More precisely, it focuses on derivational capacity of the processes of reduplication, circumfixation, infixation, base modification, and conversion. After representing the difference between concatenative and nonconcatenative morphological processes, each of the mentioned derivational processes is analysed from a crosslinguistic perspective, with special attention paid to the situation in Serbian. Besides the brief overview of the derivational capacity of the nonconcatenative processes, the goal of the paper is to enrich the terminology of the domestic word formation science (and generally of the Serbian grammar tradition).</p> Kovačević N. Borko Copyright (c) 2023 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 14 28 152 172 10.21618/fil2328152k ABSOLUTE EQUIVALENCE OF PHRASEOLOGISMS WITH THE COMPONENT EYE IN ITALIAN, SPANISH AND SERBIAN <p>This paper deals with a contrastive and conceptual analysis of somatic phraseologisms with the component eye in Italian, Spanish and Serbian, with the aim to find absolute cross-linguistic equivalents, i.e. those phraseologisms that will show a perfect symmetry on the semantic, formal and functional level, but also congruence in the concepts they express. A corpus of 102 phraseologisms was excerpted from the relevant general and phraseological dictionaries. The initial hypothesis is that, despite the fact that cases of absolute equivalents are rare, the analysed corpus will offer a significant number of such phraseologisms since somatic phraseology, due to the universality of bodily experience, reveals analogies between languages. The corpus was first subjected to a contrastive analysis in order to identify the cases of absolute equivalents. The corpus was also subjected to conceptual analysis, that aimed at determining the motivational mechanism underlying the phraseologisms, thanks to the postulated conceptual metaphors and metonymies, and then the phraseologisms were classified into semantic fields. The results confirmed the initial hypothesis. The phraseological corpus of the three contrasted languages offers a significant number of absolute translation equivalents among phraseologisms with the component eye. The largest number of absolute equivalents belongs to the semantic fields INSIGHT (6), followed by LOVE and ATTENTION/CAUTION (5). The first case can be explained by the fact that in almost all linguistic and cultural communities, eyes symbolise intellectual perception, and the second, that the semantic field of LOVE does not have precisely defined boundaries and implies different feelings ranging, from liking to lust. In the case of ATTENTION/CAUTION, the eyes, as the most important sense that perceives almost 90% of information serve, among other things, to monitor a situation and keep it under control. Some phraseologisms owe their absolute equivalence to the Bible, classical literature or mythology, and some to polygenesis and calques.</p> Marija N. Vujović Copyright (c) 2023 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 14 28 173 208 10.21618/fil2328173v DEFINING THE SAME LEXEMES IN ONLINE DICTIONARIES: A CASE STUDY OF THREE POPULAR MONOLINGUAL ENGLISH DICTIONARIES <p>In this paper we presented the different ways in which three monolingual online English dictionaries (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English Online, Oxford Learner’s Dictionaries and Merriam-Webster Dictionary) define the same lexemes that belong to different language levels (from A1 to B2). Aside from the formal elements present in all of the (online) dictionaries – part of speech, pronunciation, examples, register, pictures and synonyms, we highlighted the very nature of the definitions. We studied two lexemes for each of the language levels. When analising individual examples we employed the descriptive method, while the comparison method was used to point out the key differences in which these dictionaries define concepts such as: artist, government, immortal, meanwhile, etc. The aim of the analysis and comparison was to highlight which of the aforementioned dictionaries would be suitable for high school students to use when learning English as a foreign language. We came to the following conclusions – Longman and Oxford dictionaries break down the more complex meanings into digestible instances and use language that is appropriate for the language level of the desired lexeme. Webster’s dictionary is more formal and often uses sentence patterns and words that are above the language level of the target lexeme.</p> Милан Д. Тодоровић Наташа А. Спасић Copyright (c) 2023 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 14 28 209 224 10.21618/fil2328209t THE OPTATIVE IN THE ALBANIAN LANGUAGE <p>The verb system of the Albanian language in its present form is quite rich in different tense and modal forms. Some of them are inherited from the oldest stages of the language, others are relatively new internal creations. Although this verb form has been studied by a number of prominent albanologists such as F. Bopp (1854) (Franz Bopp), G. Meyer (1888) (Gustav Meyer), H. Pedersen (1895) (Holger Pedersen), Dh. Kamarda (1864) (Dhimitër Kamarda), Gj. Pekmezi (1908) (Gjergj Pekmez), M. Domi (1961) (Mahir Domi), Sh. Demiraj (1986) (Shaban Demiraj), its origin and development remain unclear and many questions remain open. In this paper, we deal with its historical development, its use, and we will give the opinions of other well-known linguists about this verb form. We will also analyse two books in terms of how much the optative is used in the standard language and how much in the dialect. Based on the analysis of specific examples, we concluded that the optative mood in the Albanian language is more commonly used in old texts, ballads, folktales, and dialects, and it is increasingly less utilised in standard literature, indicating a trend towards reduction, similar to what occurs in other Indo-European languages.</p> Nailja R. Malja Imami Andjela M. Markovic Copyright (c) 2023 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 14 28 225 245 10.21618/fil2328225m THE FREQUENCY AND USAGE OF OVER-DERIVATIVES IN TEXTS ON COVID-19 <p>Being stylistically neutral, prefix over- is used in different functional styles. Here the focus is on its usage in words appearing in written newspaper texts on COVID-19. The main goal of the paper is to examine the overall frequency of overderivatives in this type of text. The idea is to illustrate the most frequent word class of derivatives, show their meanings and to analyse morphological and colligational patterns in which and with which they occur. Derivational prefixes can change either the meaning of the word they are attached to or the word class. Taking into account the frequency and features derived words with this prefix show, we consider that this paper will give a significant contribution to further research on over-words in different types of texts.</p> Božana M. Tomić Jelena V. Šajinović Novaković Copyright (c) 2023 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 14 28 246 258 10.21618/fil2328246t THE CONCEPTUALISATION OF PERSONABLE VILLAINY AND WINSOME KNAVES: ENTER ANAKIN SKYWALKER AND CORIOLANUS SNOW <p>The multifaceted human personality apparatus tirelessly and somewhat incessantly keeps on giving rise to both surprising and equally dishearteningly bland revelations as regards to how the idiosyncratic denizens of this blue-hued marble encode and decipher various cultural phenomena. This is particularly pertinent in view of the relentless endeavours to peel off the deeper layers of the pseudo-proverbial human cognitive onion. It would doubtless come across as supremely hauteur-suffused should a paper harbour a latent claim to fame in terms of comprehensiveness and immaculate insight into what appears to be nothing short of a rabbit hole-like bottomless pit of hopeless scholarly efforts at inching ever so slightly more towards the neighbourhood of the metanarrative fount of all creativity and meaning. Therefore, the succeeding pages shall do away with that specific delusion and attempt to labour under merely one and relatively monotonous question: how do we go about explaining the impulse to root for the prototypical villain instead of bowing to the infinitely promulgated notion of archetypal goodness?</p> <p>The conception of strength and weakness is attached to the discussion in order to substantiate the propositional mosaic herein stipulated. Bearing this in mind, a greater degree of free expression no longer obtains for our generation unless attained by dint of explicit, yet veiled of norm-dictated defiance.</p> <p>This inflexibility dovetails neatly with the first assertion at the outset in the hope of shedding off a shroud of superfluous duplicity so successfully inculcated that it now, perhaps, gives the reader pause to learn that human cognition is deeply convoluted, leaning dangerously to the dark side of the mind and conceptualisation. Claims that linguistic adepts favour the through line of goodness over evil are handily belied, which, in itself, is not a bad thing necessarily. It might even be daring to think it a liberating and healing modicum of catharsis.</p> Emir Z. Muhić Copyright (c) 2023 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 14 28 259 269 10.21618/fil2328259m SELECTED ENGLISH IDIOMS AND SIMILES WITH FARM ANIMAL ZOONYMS AS THE SOURCE DOMAIN AND THEIR EQUIVALENTS IN SERBIAN <p>This paper presents an exploration of figurative comparison expressions featuring farm animal zoonyms in the English language and their possible equivalents in Serbian. Farm animal idioms are integral to linguistic discourse, contributing to the richness and diversity of language use. Their complexity often necessitates a deep understanding of cultural and contextual factors for their accurate interpretation, highlighting the potential for cross-cultural comparative studies to enrich our understanding of idiomatic expressions. These expressions transcend mere linguistic curiosities and play a vital role in meaning construction and imagery formation within discourse.</p> <p>The paper provides an overview of expressions divided into five categories according to the type of farm animal used as the source domain: bovines (cows and their male counterparts, bulls and oxen), equi (horses and mules), pigs, sheep and poultry, and attempts to assign an equivalent phrase in Serbian, comparing the usage between the two languages, in order to shed some light on the intricate interplay between language, culture, and cognition in the realm of idiomatic figurative expressions involving farm animals.</p> Dejan M. Milinović Copyright (c) 2023 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 14 28 270 285 10.21618/fil2328270m THE PREPOSITION UM IN GERMAN AND ITS TRANSLATION EQUIVALENTS IN SERBIAN BASED ON THE EXAMPLES FROM NOVELS HERZTIER AND AMOKLÄUFER <p>In this thesis we investigated the possibilities of translating the preposition um from German to Serbian. While reading a translated text, we usually do not ask questions about the translation equivalents. But how many are there actually? Do they have to be the same part of speech? This work has shown the most common and popular solutions, but without neglecting the rare ones. It was proven that the most common translation equivalent of the preposition um is also a preposition in Serbian, namely the preposition u. In addition, there are other prepositions and structures, as well as other parts of speech. For some examples it was not possible to identify an equivalent. The method used in this article is contrastive analysis.</p> Ana Pilić Copyright (c) 2023 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 14 28 286 298 10.21618/fil2328286p THE SECRET OF INDUS VALLEY SEALS UNSEALED <p>Belief in goddesses helping mothers to have healthy and numerous offspring covered vast expanses of Europe and Middle East during several million years from the Neolithic to the period of early Christianity. In addition to material finds, this has been proven by reading many inscriptions from Lepenski Vir, Vinča, Byblos, and the territories of the present Portugal, France, Ukraine, and Russia, all written in a kind of Vinča ideographic/logographic script. Based on the previous readings of Vinča script, the article presents an interpretation of a large number of seals from Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa made in the third millennium BC by members of the Proto-Indian civilisation.</p> Boris F. Hlebec Copyright (c) 2023 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 14 28 515 535 10.21618/fil2328515h ENGAGEMENT STRATEGIES IN SOCIAL ACTORS' RESPONSES TO THE #ENDSARS PROTEST <p>Studies on the #EndSARS protest have examined the movement from a non-linguistic standpoint, providing perspectives on the human right violations leading up to the stifling and abrupt end of the protesters’ activities, the potential consequences of the government’s response in relation to foreign ties with global communities, and the economic implications of the protest on the nation. There exists a gap of knowledge in linguistic-related studies on the protest, especially on the techniques protesters employ in establishing meaning and building solidarity with the audience in the communication processes. The study, therefore, examined the engagement strategies in the responses of social actors to events following the #EndSARS protest, and James Martin and Peter White's Appraisal framework constituted the theoretical framework. For data, two newspaper reports on the Lagos State inquiry panel on the protest and the Nigerian government's response to Cable News Network (CNN) were purposively drawn from two Nigerian newspapers, and the analyses were carried out using a descriptive approach. The results showed that of the three selected social actors, only two efficiently engaged readers, providing lucid evidence to corroborate stance in the meaning-negotiation process. Negative connotations were evoked to disclaim, condemn, and disendorse other social actors in the entrenchment of propositional values, and authorial presence was extensively engaged to reveal authors’ evaluative stance.</p> Adedayo Deborah Okoro Copyright (c) 2023 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 14 28 536 560 10.21618/fil2328536o A CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF THE DISCOURSE OF NEWSPAPER ARTICLES IN THE ITALIAN LANGUAGE ON THE (NON)PARTICIPATION OF NOVAK ĐOKOVIĆ IN THE AUSTRALIAN OPEN <p>This paper, within the framework of critical discourse analysis, deals with newspaper articles about the (non)participation of Novak Djokovic at the 2022 Australian Open, published in the electronic editions of the Italian daily newspapers Corriere della Sera and La Repubblica in January 2022. The aim of this paper was to, following Van Dijk (1988a), investigate the schematic organisation of the texts from our corpus, as well as to examine which linguistic units are used in those texts to create a positive and negative image of Novak Djokovic. The results of the research show that a very small number of analysed articles fit into Van Dijk's model of organisation of newspaper texts. The results of the linguistic analysis of the texts indicate that, on the one hand, the discourse strategies of nomination and predication are used to highlight Novak's sporting success, and on the other hand, they serve to portray Novak, who did not receive the vaccine against covid 19, as the culprit for not participating in the Australian Open in 2022 and as a person who behaves recklessly and irresponsibly during the coronavirus pandemic.</p> Marija M. Mitrović Jelena D. Puhar Copyright (c) 2023 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 14 28 561 586 10.21618/fil2328561m FILM GOOD BYE, LENIN! IN TEACHING GERMAN AS A FOREIGN LANGUAGE <p>A film in foreign language teaching has multiple functions and, with appropriate processing, can fulfil many different goals. The most important thing when using film in foreign language teaching is the realisation of educational and pedagogical goals. In this way, in addition to independent learning, another goal is achieved, which is the preparation of students for further independent life. The aim of this paper is to analyse the film "Good bye, Lenin!", which represents a good starting point for integration into the teaching of the German language, as it fulfils all the above-mentioned teaching objectives. The value of this film is also reflected in the fact that, after watching and analysing the film, the students better understand the material, the historical and cultural background, and that this can, in many ways, help them in their later interaction with members of that culture.</p> Maša Đ. Stojsavljević Divac Copyright (c) 2023 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 14 28 587 607 10.21618/fil2328587s STEPHEN THE LITTLE IN HIS AND OUR TIMES <p>Two decades ago the article ‘Mountain Wreath and our language, linguistic and social reality’ was published (Maroyevich, 2002:pp.63–93). The basic postulates of the study were later reflected in a debate on lexical homonymy in a critical issue of the edition of the epic The Mountain Wreath (Maroyevich, 2005:pp.366–400). Following a series, the final part of Nyegosh’s epic trilogy encompassing The Ray of Microcosm, the epic The Mountain Wreath and the epic Stephen the Little, are considered as ‘a revelation of Nyegosh’ by which some contemporary events and phenomena can be explained.</p> <p>The current issue of this topic deals with the contemporary usurper, students of divinity and language creators and particularly some ethnics. The name Crnogorci had only geographical and territorial meaning ‛The Serbs the inhabitants of Montenegro’, but today there is a tendency to establish this name as the name for one special nation. The name Boshnyaci had also only geographical and territorial meaning ‛the Serbs from Bosnia independent of their religion’, and nowadays there is tendency to proclaim them as being only a special nation of Islamic religious and cultural tradition. The name Arbanаsi is the name of a particular nation described in the epic Stephen the Little from the standpoint of view of aspects of their etnical characteristics that are actual even nowadays. That term is morphologically and semantically related to the area of Arbana (in Serbian as a result of metathesis of liquids: Rabana) where the Shiptars (their ethnical self term) first settled. The concept of swear word (bound by oath) with the Serbs and (new)Turks is also analysed in this paper: that concept within the overall macroconcept of face is respected by the Islamised Serbs in the Turkish camp, while the Turkish solid faith as a variant of the concept turned into a means of deception.</p> Radmilo N. Маrоyеvich Copyright (c) 2023 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 14 28 301 321 10.21618/fil2328301m CANON OR NOT CANON: THE CURIOUS CASE OF MICHAEL FIELD <p>Although they wrote more than thirty plays, nine volumes of poetry, around thirty volumes of diaries, and thousands of letters, Katharine Bradley and Edith Cooper, an aunt-niece duo, incestuous lovers and poets, more famous under their joint male pseudonym Michael Field, were almost unknown to a wider literary audience until the 1970s, when these two ‘minor’ Victorian women poets were rediscovered mostly by feminist critics. What first drew critics’ attention to this poetic pair was their dual authorial persona and the nature of their relationship, culminating in Lilian Faderman’s groundbreaking book Surpassing the Love of Men (1981). In the 1990s, critics such as Isobel Armstrong, Virginia Blain, Joseph Bristow, Holly Laird, Angela Leighton, Yopie Prins, Martha Vicinus, and Chris White shifted focus to their work, first to poetry and then to dramas and diaries. Finally, the first two decades of the twenty-first century confirmed the resurgence of interest in Michael Field, with critics such as Marion Thain and Ana Parejo Vadillo exploring this poetic duo within the wider context of fin-de-siècle literature.</p> <p>This paper will delve into various possible reasons why Bradley and Cooper, in spite of early positive reviews and the recognition of some literary greats of their age, were never granted a place among canonical British writers. Some of the avenues that will be explored are their fluid, queer identity and their refusal to define their gender; their tendency to write outdated literary genres such as verse historical dramas; the fact that they were female aesthetes, whose poetry was caught between paganism and Catholicism, homosexual and heterosexual love, femininity and masculinity, Victorian age and Modernism, tradition and modernity; their unwillingness to compromise their vision for popularity or commercial success; as well as their determination to create beautiful, well-designed books, published exclusively in rare and limited editions, which made them famous only among a small circle of connoisseurs.</p> Dijana D. Tica Copyright (c) 2023 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 14 28 322 342 10.21618/fil2328322t MIRRORING CONTEMPORARY SOCIETY: CONSUMERIST SOCIETY, MEDIA AND SIMULATED REALITY IN DON DELILLO’S NOVEL WHITE NOISE <p>Don DeLillo's novel White Noise deals with the complex relationship between popular culture, media, and consumerism and the ways in which they shape the characters' perception of reality. The main character, Jack Gladney, is a consumerist academic who is heavily influenced by the mass media, and his obsession with images of disaster and death, which are constantly shown in the media, shapes his perception of the world. Similarly, his wife Babette becomes obsessed with consumer products and loses touch with the natural world around her. The novel also explores how constant consumption of television content can create a sense of disconnection from reality and how it can create a sense of hyperreality, where the lines between reality and simulation are blurred. Also, through the character of Jack Gladney, DeLillo emphasises a society in which individuals are defined by what they own and consume. Gladney’s preoccupation with consumer goods reflects a society in which consumption determines a person’s value, and the novel points to the dangers of this trend and the need to return to people’s connection with reality and nature. DeLillo emphasises the power of media images to shape individual understanding of the world and the need to be critical of the information people consume, as well as to reconnect with reality and nature.</p> Vesna V. Bulatović Danijela M. Prošić Santovac Copyright (c) 2023 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 14 28 343 360 10.21618/fil2328343b ADAM BEDE – OVERCOMING EGOISM THROUGH SUFFERING <p>George Eliot wrote under the influence of continental philosophers, especially Ludwig Feuerbach and Auguste Comte. Both philosophers claim that the crucial problem of the individual is egoism, which can be transcended by means of sympathy and contact with others. According to Feuerbach and Comte, loyalty to family and community is the best way to transform initial egoism into altruism. This research is aimed at dealing with the issue of egoism in Eliot’s first novel, Adam Bede. The three main characters are analysed through the prism of the ethical concept of Feuerbach and Comte. The paper argues that at the beginning of the novel Adam Bede, Arthur Donnithorne and Hetty Sorrel symbolise different aspects of egoism. Adam and Arthur succeed to transcend their egoism through deep suffering, which is viewed as an instrument of moral development. Although critics often cite Hetty Sorrel as a typical representative of unredeemed egoism, this paper argues that she matures through suffering. The beginning of her transformation is marked by the confession of her crimes, which is the initial stage of redemption. However, with the exception of a few characters, the society of Hayslope treats her as an outcast, unable to even attempt to understand and forgive her. Still, although the importance of suffering and attachment to family are underlined in Adam Bede, the novel implies that altruism should not be equated with self-sacrifice. The protagonists, Dinah and Adam succeed in attaining personal fulfillment that is not inconsistent with the common good, that is, a certain reconciliation of egoism and altruism is accomplished.</p> Nataša V. Ninčetović Copyright (c) 2023 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 14 28 361 372 10.21618/fil2328361n HOW DO TOP GIRLS TURN INTO HITLERINAS?: A FEMINIST-SOCIALIST ANALYSIS OF CARYL CHURCHILL’S PLAY TOP GIRLS (1982) <p>The play Top Girls (1982) is certainly one of the most significant, most performed and most studied plays of modern British theatre. Generally, the interpretations of this piece are based on feminist theory and refer to such issues as the conflict between radical and liberal feminism, which is also mentioned and commented on in this paper. However, our focus lies on the interrelations between patriarchy and capitalism, as well as limited options for women within these two oppressive systems. In order to achieve our goal and present the ways in which, in the words of Zillah Eisenstein, the capitalist patriarchy work, apart from her study, we will refer to the works of Linda Gordon, Nancy Chodorow, Heidi Hartmann and Eva Figes. Our purpose is to show that women’s social status and their life standard cannot and should not be identified with the relatively rare success of individual women - such as Marlen who is the protagonist of the play or Margaret Thatcher who is presented as her role model – who had to embrace traditional male and capitalist values of competitiveness and selfishness in order to achieve their suspicious success. In this paper, we wanted to point out that unless women in power show understanding and empathy to other, less privileged, women, their leading positions and their top girls status do not imply female empowerment and cannot be taken as a feminist victory.</p> Svjetlana R. Ognjenović Copyright (c) 2023 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 14 28 373 392 10.21618/fil2328373o THE FIRST WORLD WAR IN THE WORK OF VICENTE BLASCO IBÁÑEZ <p>This paper examines the image of the First World War that the Spanish writer and journalist Vicente Blasco Ibáñez creates in his works of history and fiction. The paper deals with journalistic texts written by Blasko Ibáñez, collected in a multi-volume history of the First World War (Historia de la Guerra europea de 1914) and the novel The Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse (Los cuatro jinetes del Apocalipsis). We interpret the representations of the causes of war, with a special reference to the issue of "modern war" and the news it brings, we find parallels, similarities and differences between the representations in the novel and the historical work. The aim is to question the historical and cultural context in which the author pronounces certain judgments about the war, and then about the German people, with an emphasis on how pre-war Germanophilia turns into Germanophobia expressed in the analysed novel and History.</p> Mirjana M. Sekulić Copyright (c) 2023 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 14 28 393 414 10.21618/fil2328393s WOMEN IN THE AGE OF MEXICAN REVOLUTION FRANCISCO ROJAS GONZÁLEZ’S LA NEGRA ANGUSTIAS <p>This paper examines the role of women in the Mexican Revolution starting from the novel La Negra Angustias written by the Mexican writer Francisco Rojas González. The research is based on the assumption that the protagonist of the novel, Angustias Farrera, symbolically represents a powerless and downtrodden part of the Mexican population that, after centuries of suffering oppression, rises up in arms demanding a respect of basic human rights. We point out that in the period of the Mexican Revolution (1910– 1920), Angustias gets the opportunity to transform from a marginalised and passive mulatto peasant woman into an active social factor that tends to change the social system. As the military officer that forms part of the Liberation Army of the South, guerrilla force led by Emiliano Zapata, one of the most famous Mexican revolutionaries, Angustias stands up for the vulnerable part of the Mexican population, primarily women, demanding the right to freedom, independence and education. Her initial enthusiasm, however, gradually weakens under the influence of the teacher with whom she falls in love. The teacher Manuel in this Novel of the Mexican Revolution plays the role of an opportunistic intellectual who joins the Mexican Revolution in order to gain material benefit. By getting married with a greedy opportunist, Angustias abandons the revolution, and betrays her friends and ideals. From an active military officer, Angustias once again becomes a passive woman whose role in the context of the patriarchal Mexican culture is reduced to a self-sacrificing wife and mother. Therefore, following the fate of this revolutionary woman from childhood to adulthood, we try to follow the course of the Mexican Revolution in terms of armed rebellion, from the initial excitement, through the heated struggles to a status quo return.</p> Svetlana V. Stevanović Copyright (c) 2023 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 14 28 415 435 10.21618/fil2328415s SIMEON POLOTSKY’S DRAMA NEBUCHADNEZZAR THE TSAR AND ITS WESTERN-EUROPEAN DRAMA SOURCES <p>Тhis paper aims to reconsider the influences of Western-European drama of the XVII century on the creation of Russian baroque and the first drama writer in Russia Simeon Polotsky. During the initial period, Russian theatre, especially during the XVI and XVII centuries, was under the strong influences of Western theatre culture. This paper reconsiders the influence of German, French, English and Polish theatre plays. Plots of his playwright were popular and well known in Western European literature from the XII century. In this paper, we tried to reconsider those influences on the example of his drama Nebuchadnezzar the Tsar. This drama plot was well-known in Western European theatre, and Simeon Polotsky knew some of them.</p> Ivana I. Petković Copyright (c) 2023 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 14 28 436 459 10.21618/fil2328436p ISOLATED IN THE BIG CITY: (RE)FORMING THE IDENTITY OF THE PROTAGONIST-FLÂNEUR IN TEJU COLE’S OPEN CITY AND SRĐAN VALJAREVIĆ’S PEOPLE AT THE TABLE <p>The goal of this paper is to establish a connection between the ways identity is formed in the novels Open City by Nigerian-American author Teju Cole and People at the Table by Serbian author Srđan Valjarević. The protagonists of the aforementioned novels are immigrants who have found themselves in the isolated and urban space of the metropolis and are now trying to establish their place within it. We shall explore Charles Baudelaire’s notion of the flȃneur in an urban environment that greatly differs from the narrators’ previous homes. A reconfiguration of identity is necessary and this is accomplished through walking – an unconscious search for identity and its roots. We may ask ourselves: Is the city a constitutive element of the subject, or is the subject a social product of the city? The streets of New York and Amsterdam present the protagonists with opportunities to think about not only their current positions but their pasts. Confused and dissatisfied, they move within the big city searching for ways to accept their fates. A common element of both novels is the continual reflection of the past and social positions. The city forms the protagonists’ identities to the point that it creates a sense of disorientation and helplessness, thus destroying them. Walking is the most significant aspect of both novels, as only in movement can the identity of these flȃneurs come to light.</p> Aleksandra Z. Stojanović Aleksandra V. Čebašek Copyright (c) 2023 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 14 28 460 478 10.21618/fil2328460s BEING BLACK IN AMERICA: THE ANALYSIS OF RUDY FRANCISKO'S POETRY THROUGH THE PRISM OF RACE, DOUBLE IDENTITY AND POSTCOLONIAL CRITICISM <p>The poetry of contemporary American-Belizean poet Rudy Francisco carries one new and, we could say, quite personal view on the position of black people in America. The aim of this work is the analysis of Francisco’s poems, which talk about the identity of this minority in the USA and race politics, which greatly affect the status of black people. While referring to the work of the forerunners who paved the way for research in the area of postcolonial criticism and the studies of the identity of black people such as Frantz Fanon, Jacques Lacan, Du Bois and others, this work will display the connection between the selectively chosen Francisco’s poems and the ideas of postcolonialism. During the interpretation of the particular poems, the effect of the BLM (Black Lives Matter) movement, which continues to this day, will be felt significantly. We will also analyse the role of white police officers in the battle for the equality of black people. When all of the above-mentioned research subjects of this paper are taken into account, it is evident that the work of Rudy Francisco gives a certain freshness to the study of the identity of black people.</p> Neira R. Lojić Copyright (c) 2023 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 14 28 479 495 10.21618/fil2328479l BOŽIDAR PETRANOVIĆ AND THE EMERGENCE OF PERIODICALS IN SERBIAN IN THE PROVINCE OF DALMATIA <p>Božidar Petranović belongs to a group of prominent actors as regards to the 19th-century Serbian culture in the province of Dalmatia (part of the present-day Croatia). Although his social engagement is versatile (among other things, he was a law attorney, a writer, a literary historian, a translator, a deputy in the parliament, a creator of legal documents, and a historian), one of his most notable contributions would be the establishment and subsequent editing of a journal entitled Srpsko-dalmatinski magazin, the first publication dealing with Serbian literature in Dalmatia, whose influence was felt far beyond the imagined borders. For that reason, this paper is focused on the editorial, cultural, and literary engagement of Božidar Petranović among the Serb population in Dalmatia, especially as regards to the aforementioned journal.</p> Danijela D. Jelić Copyright (c) 2023 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 14 28 496 512 10.21618/fil2328496j