PHILOLOGIST – Journal of Language, Literature, and Cultural Studies https://filolog.rs.ba/index.php/filolog <p><em>Philologist</em>, founded by the Faculty of Philology, Banja Luka, is an open access, peer-reviewed journal promoting contemporary theoretical and interdisciplinary approaches from the fields of language, literature, and culture, with an international editorial board.</p> <p>We kindly invite you to make your academic contribution and improve the quality of our journal.</p> <p>The <em>Philologist </em>journal has been registered in the list of the <a href="http://www.fil.bg.ac.rs/wp-content/uploads/centri/mks/MKS%20lista%20casopisa.pdf"><strong>International Committee of Slavists</strong></a>. It has also been indexed in the <a href="https://dbh.nsd.uib.no/publiseringskanaler/erihplus/periodical/info?id=488245"><strong>ERIH PLUS</strong></a> list since March 2016.</p> <p><em>Philologist </em>journal is published biannually, in June and in December. Papers can be submitted over the course of a year and should be sent to the following address: <strong>filolog@flf.unibl.org</strong>.</p> <p>We also invite you to join us on Facebook page of the <em>Philologist</em> (<a href="https://www.facebook.com/filologbl/">LINK</a>) and recommend us to your colleagues, who might be interested in sending their contributions and browsing through the journal contents.</p> Универзитет у Бањој Луци, Филолошки факултет en-US PHILOLOGIST – Journal of Language, Literature, and Cultural Studies 1986-5864 THEORY, AFFECT, MOVEMENT: NEW DIRECTIONS IN ACTIVIST SCHOLARSHIP https://filolog.rs.ba/index.php/filolog/article/view/184 <p>Book review</p> Paul Stubbs Copyright (c) 2022 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 13 25 421 425 10.21618/fil2225421s ON COVID-19 PANDEMIC IN LINGUISTIC MIRROR FEATURING RUSSIAN LANGUAGE CORPUS https://filolog.rs.ba/index.php/filolog/article/view/185 <p>Приказ</p> Тијана И. Балек Copyright (c) 2022 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 13 25 426 435 10.21618/fil2225426b THE REPUBLIC OF DUBROVNIK LITERATURE IN SERBIAN LITERARY HISTORY – A SCHOLARLY DICTIONARY https://filolog.rs.ba/index.php/filolog/article/view/186 <p>Приказ</p> Јелена Д. Раца Copyright (c) 2022 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 13 25 436 440 10.21618/fil2225436r ARIADNE’S THREAD BROKEN – THE INVERTED LABYRINTH THEORY https://filolog.rs.ba/index.php/filolog/article/view/187 <p>Приказ</p> Јелена Г. Рељић Copyright (c) 2022 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 13 25 441 449 10.21618/fil2225441r DECIPHERING THE BYBLOS “PSEUDOHIEROGLYPHIC” SCRIPT https://filolog.rs.ba/index.php/filolog/article/view/161 <p>Since the Byblos “pseudohieroglyphic” signs are graphically almost identical with the Vinča (Danube/Old European) pre-script (which originally appeared in the central Balkans, then spread to the Danube valley, southern Hungary, Macedonia, Transylvania, and northern Greece, and has also been recorded in distant countries such as the Ukraine, Spain and Portugal), the author applies his knowledge in deciphering this pre-script in order to read more than fifty lines of the Byblos signs. Thus, at least some of the Byblos “pseudohieroglyphs” appear to constitute a restricted system of mythographic “eidograms” (halfway between pictograms and ideograms) used for the invocation of goddesses throughout the Old World, rather than a syllabary, as erroneously believed by George Mendenhall, Brian Colless, Jan Best, Fred Woudhuizen and others, or an alphabet (Malachi Martin).</p> Boris F. Hlebec Copyright (c) 2022 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 13 25 15 28 10.21618/fil2225015h VOCALISM AND CONSONANTISM IN THE COLLECTION OF POEMS ON THE OTHER SIDE OF THE STREAK BY JAGODA KLJAIĆ https://filolog.rs.ba/index.php/filolog/article/view/162 <p>This paper analyses the vocal and consonant system in the collection of poems <em>On the Other Side of the Streak </em>by Jagoda Kljaić. The language in this literary work is a reflection of the archaic Banija idiom, which is no longer spoken, and which the poet activates to preserve it from oblivion. The aim of this paper is to give an overview of the researched linguistic features, compare them with previous scientific knowledge about this and other western Serbian dialects, and complete the picture of the Banija dialect which is an integral part of the Herzegovinian-Krajina dialect.</p> Biljanа M. Savić Copyright (c) 2022 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 13 25 29 48 10.21618/fil2225029s MORPHOLOGICAL PRODUCTIVITY OF COMPOUND NOUNS IN ENGLISH AT THE LEVEL OF WORD-FORMATION RULES https://filolog.rs.ba/index.php/filolog/article/view/163 <p>This paper tries to present morphological productivity of compound nouns in a corpus comprised of news, literary, academic and TV registers using an onomasiological approach, namely, the productivity at the level of word-formation rules. The productivity at the aforementioned level is the union of the productivity at the level of word-formation types and morphological types. By using manual, descriptive, analytic and statistical methods, we came to 571 examples of compound nouns that fell into 10 different conceptual categories (Agent, Action, Result, Object, Location, Instrument, Substance, Time, Quantity, State), i.e. clusters. Each cluster offered pieces of information on the interaction of different concepts within different word-formation types together with the morphological aspect through different morphological types, which was the aim of the paper. The results proved our initial hypothesis that the interaction of different elements is of the utmost significance for better understanding of compounding. The interaction of two concepts dominated all clusters while the combination of two stems, especially two nouns, dominated morphological types.</p> Maja M. Žarković Mccray Maja R. Kujundžić Copyright (c) 2022 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 13 25 49 67 10.21618/fil2225049z INCORPORATING MULTILITERACIES AND MULTIMODALITY INTO LITERACY INSTRUCTION FOR EFL STUDENTS AT A TERTIARY LEVEL: A CASE STUDY https://filolog.rs.ba/index.php/filolog/article/view/164 <p>In EFL, developing literacy is primarily based on improving reading skills, which is quite problematic for millennials, regardless of their proficiency levels, since they seem to be more used to video input than texts. Drawing on the theoretical concept of multiliteracies (New London Group 1996), introduced to outline a specific pedagogic framework for rethinking the future of language education, this paper discusses the results of a study conducted at the Department of English Studies, University of Novi Sad. The main aim of the study was to identify and determine the primary problems students majoring in English have while doing reading text-based comprehension tasks, and to compare the results with comprehension tasks that combine text and video input. Even though teaching and learning are by definition multimodal, particularly in the field of EFL, since both processes imply the use of different modes (speech, writing, gesture, image, sound), at higher levels of education these modes do not seem to be equally present. This study suggests some theoretical and practical directions towards integrating multimodal approaches in developing literacy in order to promote positive learning outcomes of EFL students.</p> Diana Lj. Prodanović Stankić Bojana M. Jakovljević Copyright (c) 2022 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 13 25 68 85 10.21618/fil2225068p INTRINSIC AND EXTRINSIC MOTIVATION IN EFL LEARNING AT UNIVERSITY LEVEL https://filolog.rs.ba/index.php/filolog/article/view/165 <p>Whether learners are motivated or not and, if they are motivated, whether their motivation is intrinsic or extrinsic is an important factor influencing the outcome of learning a foreign language. This paper examines the intrinsic and extrinsic motivation of students learning English as a foreign language at B1 level according to The Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR). The theoretical background of the research set forth in this paper does not rely only on the aforementioned dichotomy but it is also based on a more detailed classification of extrinsic motivation by Ryan and Deci (2000) into four types (external regulation, introjected regulation, regulation through identification, integrated regulation) as well as the tripartite classification of intrinsic motivation by Vallerand et al. (1992) (intrinsic motivation to know, intrinsic motivation toward accomplishments, intrinsic motivation to experience stimulation). The aim of the research was to gain insight into the most significant factors influencing motivation of the aforementioned students, the type of motivation which is the strongest driving force in these students’ learning of English and the relation between different types of motivation and the students’ gender, regular class attendance, voluntary participation in an extra written assignment and the total average grade obtained throughout the entire academic year. The sample for the research included 145 students at the Faculty of Philosophy, University of Novi Sad enrolled on 14 different study programmes. A quantitative approach to data collection was used through a questionnaire with closed-ended questions. The research results based on the statistical analysis of the collected data showed that the most important factor influencing motivation for EFL learning is the teachers’ behaviour and rapport with their students. In the examined sample, the most prominent type of motivation was an external one or, more specifically, regulation through identification and integrated regulation. A statistically significant difference was noticed in the case of participants’ gender as a variable in this research, especially taking into account intrinsic motivation to know and experience stimulation. Students’ irregular class attendance and decision not to participate in an extra written assignment were related to their lack of motivation. Furthermore, the degree of students’ motivation and their total average grade were in direct proportion. Finally, it was concluded that the participants perceived motivation as a significant outcome of EFL teaching.</p> Danijela M. Prošić Santovac Ana V. Halas Popović Copyright (c) 2022 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 13 25 86 114 10.21618/fil2225086p THE MOST COMMON CONCERNS OF LECTURERS REGARDING THE TEACHING OF SERBIAN AS A FOREIGN LANGUAGE https://filolog.rs.ba/index.php/filolog/article/view/166 <p>The subject of this paper is the analysis and classification of the most common doubts of linguists, researchers and teachers-practitioners in the field of methodology of teaching Serbian as a foreign language. The aim of this paper is to consider and find possible solutions. In this paper, we used the descriptive method and the method of theoretical analysis with the technique of content analysis. We conducted detailed qualitative and quantitative research. The material for the research consisted of posts (and comments) in a group on Facebook called Serbian Language for Foreigners: a group for lecturers. In two years the group gathered more than two thousand linguists, researchers and teachers-practitioners. A survey conducted in the second half of March 2022 showed us that all doubts and all questions can be classified into six major groups: 1) organisational issues of teaching Serbian as a foreign language, 2) issues related to the processing of materials and contents, 3) announcements of lectures, summer schools and webinars dedicated to this type of teaching, 4) business offers for teachers of Serbian as a foreign language, 5) interesting facts about learning Serbian and 6) tips for writing scientific research papers. In the end, we have tried to offer (potential) answers to the questions asked and clearly formulated doubts.</p> Aleksandar M. Novaković Copyright (c) 2022 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 13 25 115 142 10.21618/fil2225115n THE USE OF FEMALE NOMINA AGENTIS IN JOB ADVERTISEMENTS – A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE SERBIAN AND MODERN GREEK LANGUAGE https://filolog.rs.ba/index.php/filolog/article/view/167 <p>Language, apart from being a means of communication, is also an important medium for conveying meaning and shaping social and cultural patterns. Additionally, language plays an important role in defining notions such as gender and gender equality (Filipović, 2009; Cameron, 2003). In an era of active participation of women in the labour market, it is important to examine the impact of language on their position in society and their access to various fields (Stout, Dasgupta, 2011). The way in which employers advertise open job positions gives us a great insight into this topic. The aim of this paper is to examine the use of gender-sensitive language in job titles on four search engines in Serbia and Greece. This paper seeks to investigate the extent to which titles of female positions are represented, bearing in mind that the choice of linguistic elements has an impact on the perception of the market reality and the motivation of future employees. Specifically, the focus of the paper lies in the areas of accounting, customer support, translation, insurance, management, marketing, economics and science. Тhe findings are compared within two culturally and socially close contexts, in order to draw conclusions about the position of women in the labour market. The results of the analysis confirm the hypotheses, that is the examined job titles are rarely in line with gender-sensitive language. It was also found that the use of <em>nomina agentis </em>exclusively in the masculine gender is more common in the case of higher positions, especially in the field of management. The paper provides insights into the current situation with which women come into contact when searching for jobs in certain areas. Moreover, the study provides a basis for further research on the relationship between language and gender in the social Serbian and Greek context, respectively.</p> Antonina V. Kostić Copyright (c) 2022 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 13 25 143 162 10.21618/fil2225143k PREDICTABLE ERRORS IN SERBIAN AS A FOREIGN LANGUAGE https://filolog.rs.ba/index.php/filolog/article/view/168 <p>This paper compares the written production of students learning Serbian as a foreign language with utterances of children at an early age acquiring Serbian as a first language. In one part of the corpus – the one compared – there are errors in essays by a linguistically heterogeneous group of students who attended an intensive course in Serbian at A1 and A2 levels of knowledge in the Centre for Serbian as a Foreign Language (within the Department of Serbian Language and Linguistics) at the Faculty of Philosophy in Novi Sad. The other part of the corpus – the one the first part is compared with – there are deviations from the standard Serbian language revealed in papers dedicated to the acquisition of Serbian and speech development of children at an early age (one to three years old). By means of comparison, common morphological and syntactic deviations from the standard Serbian norm have been determined and singled out (deviations: 1. in the creation of verb forms, 2. in congruence between the subject and predicate as well as 3. in the use of prepositional-case constructions with verbs) with the aim of showing which students’ errors occur under the influence of the target language itself, i.e. due to intralingual interference. The result of the analysis is a list of the total 43 types and subtypes of errors common for the two groups of respondents, which further leads to the conclusion that the singled out students’ errors can be considered intralinguistic ones. It is established that the total sum of examples by students is 38.1% of their whole corpus in the three observed grammar segments.</p> Biljana M. Babić Copyright (c) 2022 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 13 25 163 188 10.21618/fil2225163b ANCIENT EPISTOLOGRAPHY: THE DEVELOPMENT OF LETTER-WRITING IN GREECE https://filolog.rs.ba/index.php/filolog/article/view/169 <p>The development of ancient epistolography could be associated with the very development of literacy in Greece. Apart from its original function, to transfer a notice to a distant person, the letter has expanded its realm over time. Trough an overview of the letters preserved in the Greek language area and in the works of Greek authors, we can see various functions the letter assumed – both in everyday life and in literature. Numerous accounts and fragments of letters, from short business notice on lead tablets to private letters written on papyrus, which served as a means for preserving familiar or friendly relationships, point to a great popularity of the letter in ancient times. Given the flexibility of its form and the possibility of its usage on a number of occasions, whether public or private, both by the educated and by the uneducated, we notice that the epistolary form, as a means of communication, soon became firmly rooted in the Greek cultural area. The paper aims at highlighting the very beginning of developing the form of letter in Greece, its basic elements and characteristics, as well as the terms used for it in the Greek language.</p> Slobodanka S. Prtija Copyright (c) 2022 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 13 25 189 202 10.21618/fil2225189p THEORY OF PRACTICE AND A BRIEF OVERVIEW OF TASK DESIGN IN UNIVERSITY CLIL TEACHING – AN EXAMPLE OF GEOMYTHOLOGY https://filolog.rs.ba/index.php/filolog/article/view/170 <p>Challenging the established practice and canons has never been an easy task, i. e. ”a walk in the park”. This paper attempts to provide reasons for believing that the complexity of the CLIL method requires a new type of teacher focused on scientific research, recording and monitoring of their practice. Teachers-researchers, in the spirit of the new era of knowledge, especially when it comes to university teaching or transformative teaching, promote the improvement of contextual language education based on a true understanding of all kinds of academic specificities. Appropriate theory of practice, in order to be useful and applicable, must be pragmatic and tailored to the specific needs of a particular classroom. The theory of practice, intended for CLIL lecturers working in certain unexplored circumstances, is additionally demanding because it expects teachers to improve their practice and often create their own teaching materials, which are missing and which do not seem to appear on the market soon. The teacher-researcher, in that sense, should first examine, describe, evaluate and improve his practice, going into the depth of understanding the linguistic contextual situation and the complex concept of teaching such as CLIL. If teachers, as the backbone of the teaching process, do not engage in the right measure and in the right way in creating their own teaching identity, there is a possibility that they will not succeed when it comes to creating the identity of their students either. This means elucidating all the elements of small and large culture, as well as elucidating and creating new forms of communication and discursive forms that the new language practice spontaneously imposes. Introducing myth into teaching practice is an attempt to create wider possibilities of the teaching process through myth, so that myth, as a rich pedagogical resource, will be used to develop critical spirit, improve learning in the field of major studies and form patterns of tolerant and quality communicative competence. The assumption that this is an ambitious task and that it implies additional time efforts was not left out. However, the dominant intention was that the new teaching materials contribute to the creation of the student’s expertise and personality, and that each segment of the work leads to a higher level of knowledge, communicative skills and cultural understanding. The research confirmed the interest, activation and positive attitudes of students who see myths as more modern and flexible forms of teaching. Students showed a willingness to cooperate, talk, debate in an area they know very little about and in a way, they have never learned a language. Taking into account all the results we have obtained, we unequivocally conclude that the initial research needs additional, subsequent consideration, in order to obtain an even higher level of quality in teaching and language application.</p> Lidija V. Beko Dragoslava N. Mićović Copyright (c) 2022 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 13 25 203 221 10.21618/fil2225203b АN OVERVIEW OF MONOLINGUAL ONLINE DICTIONARIES OF THE SERBIAN LANGUAGE https://filolog.rs.ba/index.php/filolog/article/view/171 <p>By utilising the descriptive method, in this paper we have presented the current state of Serbian lexicography. Specifically, we emphasised the quantity and quality of free digital dictionaries. We based our research on the fact that dictionaries are an essential learning tool in a language classroom and that there is a wide choice of online dictionaries for many foreign languages. By viewing the data synchronically and analysing monolingual online Serbian dictionaries, we can conclude the following: 1) the supply, number and quality of available digital Serbian dictionaries is not satisfactory, especially ones that are free of charge; 2) Serbian lexicography lacks one solid, reliable online dictionary that is founded on scientific and lexicological methods; 3) in the existing dictionaries all the elements of a dictionary entry are not present (part of speech, case, grammatical gender, grammatical number, audio recording of pronunciation, synonyms, idioms, and even full-fledged definitions and contexts of use). By using dictionaries in the classroom we can improve not only a student’s knowledge of lexicography, but we can also enrich their vocabulary, develop their wording and ways to express themselves, and improve their functional literacy. Thus, the role, importance and need for online dictionaries is vital.</p> Nataša A. Spasić Milan D. Todorović Copyright (c) 2022 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 13 25 222 239 10.21618/fil2225222s ENGAGEMENT RESOURCES IN ESP RESEARCH ARTICLE ABSTRACTS https://filolog.rs.ba/index.php/filolog/article/view/172 <p>This paper investigates engagement resources employed in research article abstracts in the field of English for Specific Purposes. Engagement resources comprise rhetorical strategies by which authors allow for or dismiss alternative viewpoints. Excluding the dialogic space for alternative opinions is termed dialogic contraction, while opening up the possibility for dialogic alternatives is dialogic expansion. These strategies are described within Appraisal theory of Systemic Functional Linguistics. We conducted a corpus-based qualitative analysis on 50 ESP abstracts using Martin and White’s analytical method (Martin and White 2005), in order to investigate the dialogic space occupied by the writer and reader in the sample. All abstracts were written in English and published by Taylor &amp; Francis Group in the period from 2015 to 2020. Engagement resources were identified and explicated in each move structure of abstracts we analysed. The results of the study will show what kind of lexicogrammatical structures are employed in order to achieve the rhetorical effects of dialogic expansion and contraction in ESP research article abstracts. The awareness of the evaluative strategies can help novice ESP academic authors in modeling their own abstracts and academic texts in general.</p> Katarina M. Ilić Copyright (c) 2022 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 13 25 240 264 10.21618/fil2225240i BERTA BOJETU BOETA’S DYSTOPIAN VISIONS https://filolog.rs.ba/index.php/filolog/article/view/174 <p>This article examines two novels by the Slovene writer Berta Bojetu Boeta: <em>Filio is Not at Home </em>(<em>Filio ni doma</em>) and <em>The House of Birds </em>(<em>Ptičja hiša</em>), both published in the 1990’s. The two works depict dystopian societies focused on repression and aimed at generating systematic alienation. The plots are set in remote and isolated places (an island, a mountain, a prison, a brothel) whose inhabitants are enslaved and subjected to violence which mainly affects women. The denial of freedom that characterises these societies is one of the fundamental aspects of dystopian fiction. Despite the extreme limitation of their possibilities, the characters narrated by Bojetu find ways of resisting repression through painting, reading and the creation of human bonds, thus managing to escape from dystopian environments and keep their humanity alive.</p> Irena Prosenc Copyright (c) 2022 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 13 25 267 278 10.21618/fil2225267p ÒGBÓJÚ ỌDẸ NÍNÚ IGBÓ IRÚNMỌLẸ̀ (THE FOREST OF A THOUSAND DAEMONS: A HUNTER’S SAGA) AND LÁNGBÒDÓ (THE INDESCRIBABLE MOUNT): PERFORMING CULTURE IN AFRICA https://filolog.rs.ba/index.php/filolog/article/view/175 <p>The study of theatre culture in Africa provides a significant background to reassess the emphasis on orthodox ideologies and influence of European aesthetics on the development of African theatre. The tradition of locating the worldview of dramatic characters within a culture which the audience within the culture can emphathise with is universal. And in most instances it is the misinformation about what is stylistically different across cultures that is instrumental in isolating non-Western people's experiences. Thus the contextualisation of D. O. Fágúnwà’s novel, Ògbójú Ọdẹ Nínú Igbó Irúnmọlẹ̀, translated from the Yorùbá as The Forest of a Thousand Daemons: A Hunters Saga by the Nobel Prize winner Wole Soyinka, and Lángbòdó, the stage adaption whose title, Lángbòdó (The Indescribable Mount), is based on the wild locale at the heart of the hunter's adventure in Fágúnwà's novel by Wálé Ògúnyẹmí, within the system of Aláárìnjó the indigenous Yorùbá Travelling Theatre in West Africa, asserts culture as a performance space. The approach to understanding the concept of a theatre is to understand the art form which is characteristic of the culture. In the dramatic narrative of the hunter-narrator on a mission to the distant Mount Lángbòdó, Fágúnwà and Ògúnyẹ́mí capture the functional dimensions of indigenous people's theatres distinctive from European realities. This paper is an attempt to emphasise the importance of revisiting the definitions and developments of theatre along the backgrounds of indigenous cultures and theatrical arts such as Aláárìnjó as drawn from the selected works of the two Yorùbá writers.</p> Shola Balogun Abiodun John Macaulay Copyright (c) 2022 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 13 25 279 293 10.21618/fil2225279b THE REVISIONS OF ANCIENT MYTHOLOGY IN TESS OF THE D’URBERVILLES https://filolog.rs.ba/index.php/filolog/article/view/176 <p>Although the critics have traditionally observed the novel <em>Tess of the D’Urbervilles </em>as the disapproval of Victorian morals and double standards, the aim of this work is to point out the fact that this novel also has a general, universal meaning. Using Lukacs’ concept of realistic fiction as a synthesis of particular and universal as a starting point, the author of this research claims that this novel is a story of the tragic destiny of a particular character, but that at the same time Tess Durbeyfield functions as an embodiment of the Archetypal Feminine. Myths are symbolic expressions of archetypes, and, apart from numerous parallels with the ancient myth of Demeter and Persephone, the novel contains allusions to the myth of Genesis and to classical gods like Artemis and Apollo. The character of Tess Durbeyfield is closely related to earth and natural laws. Tough she has a great mythic potential, nobody (with the exception of Alec D’Urberville), not even Tess herself, realises it. Tis leads to a tragic outcome. Contrary to Persephone, who, even though Hades carries her to the Underworld and pronounces her his wife, succeeds to return to Earth and to begin a new life, Tess never regains stability after she loses her virginity to Alec. She does not recognise Alec’s function in terms of initiation into the world of maturity. Her sole reaction is neglect of the sensual part of her nature and her turning to the spiritual. There is no projection of the archetype, which inevitably leads Tess to failure and death.</p> Nataša V. Ninčetović Copyright (c) 2022 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 13 25 294 308 10.21618/fil2225294n TWO-VOICE TEXTURE OF EKPHRASIS. FIGURE OF LOVE – EKPHRASTIC FORMS IN THE OEUVRE OF SVETISLAV MANDIĆ https://filolog.rs.ba/index.php/filolog/article/view/177 <p>This paper deals with ekphrasis in the poetry and essays by Svetislav Mandic, in their particular form, method of creation, and function, in relation to the author’s profile and the specific position of his oeuvre in terms of literary history. The ekphrastic nature of Mandic’s oeuvre is discussed using several characteristic examples from his essays and lyrical poetry. At the same time, what is emphasised is the fact that various forms of picturesque and iconic descriptions in Mandic’s oeuvre are not necessarily ekphrastic, which means that particular attention should be paid not to exaggerate about the significance of the ekphrase as regards the overall enterprise of Mandic. The final conclusion about the nature of Mandic’s ekphrasis – that it implies figures of love – is based upon the analysis of the examples presented in the paper.</p> Nedeljka V. Bjelanovic Copyright (c) 2022 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 13 25 309 322 10.21618/fil2225309b TOWARDS A POETICS OF DEATH: COMPARATIVE AND AESTHETICAL REFLECTIONS https://filolog.rs.ba/index.php/filolog/article/view/178 <p>This article is proposed as a study on the issue of the relationship between the datum of death and the aesthetic context of the creation of a literary work, and therefore of authorial poetics. Starting with an in-depth study of the concept of literature and poetics ‘of death’, it will be intended to proceed with research on the related philosophical and critical issues, to provide an overview of the most important insights on the subject. Thanks to a comparative and transmedia approach, the discourse will be addressed to the theory of death in literature, considering in a broad sense the most significant contemporary critical proposals. Thus, literary and cinematographic case studies will be proposed, as part of a reflection on the issue from a theoretical point of view. The ontological implications relating to the creation of the work of art will also be considered, in order to deepen, with full awareness, the relationship between the poetics of death and works of a not only artistic and literary nature, but also the testimonial.</p> Stefano Bottero Copyright (c) 2022 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 13 25 323 340 10.21618/fil2225323b THE FRONT DOORBELLS IN TAT’JANA TOLSTAJA’S STORIES: THEIR DESIGN AND CULTURAL MEMORY https://filolog.rs.ba/index.php/filolog/article/view/179 <p>In some stories by Tatyana Tolstaya, published between 2004 and 2015, of Soviet and post-Soviet setting, the doorbell, in the representation of living contexts, seems to take on a non-secondary significance. Sometimes, it is its aesthetic value to be highlighted; while, in other moments, it is its function to be emphasised. This article aims to investigate the meaning the doorbell acquires in Tolstaya’s narratives, the way it relates, each single time, to the surrounding system of objects, as well as with the main characters of the stories. Although its being a product of modern technology, the doorbell, located on the front door, connects to the threshold, a place steeped in stratified mythical and ancestral values.</p> Giulia Baselica Copyright (c) 2022 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 13 25 341 354 10.21618/fil2225341b SPITE AND SOUR CREAM IN THE WONDERLAND https://filolog.rs.ba/index.php/filolog/article/view/180 <p>In this paper, we will deal with stereotypes that one of the most versatile Serbian artists, Momo Kapor, explains and interprets about his people in the book <em>A Guide to the Serbian Mentality</em>. Since the appearance of the earliest travelogues about the Balkans and its inhabitants, the image that was transmitted further into the world has represented this area as wild and its people as insufficiently civilised. Writing for the review of the national airline in order to interest those who will soon land in Serbia, to better explore the space where they found themselves, Momo Kapor uses previously adopted stereotypes in an interesting way – some deepening and some denying, sometimes establishing new ones. In order to better understand the function of stereotypes in Kapor's painting of Belgrade, we will compare his descriptions of the capital of Serbia with the capital of Bosnia from the <em>Sarajevo trilogy</em>. The subject of our work will be treated with the rules of literary imagology, a science that originated within the framework of comparative literature, and its subject of research is the presentation of the Other in literature.</p> Marijana S. Jelisavčić Copyright (c) 2022 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 13 25 355 371 10.21618/fil2225355j EKPHRASIS AS A NARRATIVE TECHNIQUE IN THE NOVEL SABO JE STAO BY OTO HORVAT https://filolog.rs.ba/index.php/filolog/article/view/181 <p>This paper analyses ekphrasis as a rhetorical tool and a narrative technique in Oto Horvat’s novel <em>Sabo je stao </em>(2014). The understanding of ekphrasis is not limited to verbal descriptions of works of art, but it is hypothesised that Horvat treats memories, i.e. images from the past, in the same way. The novel’s structure is reminiscent of a film strip that unwinds memories from the personal and shared past. By elaborating the trauma caused by the loss of his spouse and trying to recover her life, at least in literature, the writer revives memories of their shared life and a collective past in a country that no longer exists. In the comparisons between the ekphrastic descriptions of the artistic photographs and those of the imaginary, personal photographs, particular emphasis has been placed on the choice of vocabulary and intertextuality.</p> Marija M. Bradaš Copyright (c) 2022 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 13 25 372 385 10.21618/fil2225372b CEREMONIAL SPEECH ON THE OCCASION OF THE UNIVERSITY OF BANJA LUKA FACULTY OF PHILOLOGY DAY – ST. CYRIL AND METHODIUS, 24 MAY 2022. https://filolog.rs.ba/index.php/filolog/article/view/188 <p>Бесједа</p> Софија Милорадовић Copyright (c) 2022 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 13 25 453 460 10.21618/fil2225453m “LA NAZIONE GIOVINETTA RESISTEVA AL COLOSSO”: FRACCAROLI E L’IMMAGINE DELLA SERBIA NEL LIBRO LA SERBIA NELLA SUA TERZA GUERRA: LETTERE DAL CAMPO SERBO (1915) https://filolog.rs.ba/index.php/filolog/article/view/182 <p>Questo contributo ha come intento quello di presentare il rapporto tra uno dei giornalisti italiani più importanti di inizio Novecento, Arnaldo Fraccaroli, e la Serbia nei primi mesi della Grande Guerra. Fraccaroli viene annoverato dagli studiosi tra quei giornalisti quali Barzini, Civinini, Ojetti e altri che, con il loro lavoro e il loro stile di scrittura, hanno rappresentato un punto di svolta nella storia della carta stampata italiana. Piuttosto noto al grande pubblico durante la lunga carriera, il giornalista veronese, in parte fnito nel dimenticatoio dopo la sua morte, è stato riportato di recente all’attenzione dei lettori da un’accurata biografa scritta nel 2019 da Gian Pietro Olivetto. “La dolce vita di Fraka, cronista del Corriere della Sera” è il titolo dell’opera, da cui questo lavoro attinge parte delle informazioni sull’autore. La riscoperta di Fraccaroli, però, non si limita soltanto al libro di Olivetto, poiché nel 2017 la casa editrice Prometej di Novi Sad ha pubblicato la traduzione del libro “La Serbia nella sua terza guerra: lettere dal campo serbo”, scritto dal cronista italiano nel 1915. Questo testo, una raccolta di osservazioni e impressioni di viaggio annotate dal giornalista durante un viaggio da Salonicco a Belgrado nell’inverno del 1915, offre la possibilità, fnora poco approfondita, di considerare il lavoro di Fraccaroli nella prospettiva di un tramite tra i lettori italiani e la difcile realtà serba in quei primi mesi di guerra.</p> Maria Fornari Čuković Copyright (c) 2022 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 13 25 389 405 10.21618/fil2225389f SPACE AS A MEANS OF (NON)COMMUNICATION IN MICHELANGELO ANTONIONI’S RED DESERT AND TODD HAYNES’ SAFE https://filolog.rs.ba/index.php/filolog/article/view/183 <p>Two movies from two very different movie eras, Michelangelo Antonioni's <em>Red Desert </em>(<em>Il deserto rosso</em>, made in 1964) and Todd Haynes' <em>Safe </em>(made in 1995), can be linked one with the other, based on several conceptual, thematic and stylistic similarities. This paper will be an attempt to highlight some aspects and characteristics of these major cinematic achievements, to show how much their worldviews and their directors' unique visions are comparable, and if so, for what reasons. The paper specifically examines the way these rather hermetic movies try to communicate with their viewers, by employing very specific means to achieve that goal, primarily open and closed spaces that help diminish the non-communicative nature of these works.</p> Dejan M. Malčić Copyright (c) 2022 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 13 25 406 418 10.21618/fil2225406m