PHILOLOGIST – Journal of Language, Literature, and Cultural Studies <p><em>Philologist</em>, founded by the Faculty of Philology, Banja Luka, is an open access, peer-reviewed journal promoting contemporary theoretical and interdisciplinary approaches from the fields of language, literature, and culture, with an international editorial board.</p> <p>We kindly invite you to make your academic contribution and improve the quality of our journal.</p> <p>The <em>Philologist </em>journal has been registered in the list of the <a href=""><strong>International Committee of Slavists</strong></a>. It has also been indexed in the <a href=""><strong>ERIH PLUS</strong></a> list since March 2016.</p> <p><em>Philologist </em>journal is published biannually, in June and in December. Papers can be submitted over the course of a year and should be sent to the following address: <strong></strong>.</p> <p>We also invite you to join us on Facebook page of the <em>Philologist</em> (<a href="">LINK</a>) and recommend us to your colleagues, who might be interested in sending their contributions and browsing through the journal contents.</p> en-US (Biljana Babić) (Andrej Rudić) Fri, 30 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0200 OJS 60 ON THE DESTINY OF POST-ACCENT LENGTHS IN THE SPEECH OF THE VILLAGE OF BASTASI <p>На основании собранного диалектного материала о речи Бастаса, деревни на юго-западе Боснии, автор статьи отмечает, что по распределению заударных долгот эта речь очень похожа на стандартный сербский язык и другие речи восточно-герцеговинского (герцеговинско-краинского) диалекта, к группе которого она принадлежит по своей структуре. Основные отклонения от просодической нормы сербского языка в речи Бастаса сводятся на пример к следующему:</p> <p>1) Заударные долготы утрачиваются на гласной е в основе настоящего времени у многочисленных глаголов первой группы Стевановича, если глагольные формы, построенные из такой основы, имеют долгое восходящее ударение: извéземо гоблéнā, сȁмо ỳ кāртама крάде.</p> <p>2) Они также утрачиваются в форме настоящего времени у глаголов с основой на -je: нѐ вјерујем ником, засије свѐгā пὸмало.</p> <p>3) Вторичные долготы регулярно встречаются в притяжательных формах, оканчивающихся на на -ов и -ин: на Бȍгдāнов пóзив, Нȅнāд Бȍшков; Нéђо Ȁнūн, Àњђēлкūн ỳнук.</p> <p>4) Кроме того, вторичные долготы регулярно встречаются на последнем слоге слова в третьем лице множественного числа аориста: зὰвадͧшē се, јутрōс закὰснͧшē...</p> <p>В работе также описывается отношение речи Бастаса к соседним икавским говорам ливанско-дуванского типа.</p> Драгомир В. Козомара Copyright (c) 2023 Fri, 30 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0200 CONSTRUCTIONS WITH THE PREPOSITION PO IN THE NOVELS THE WOMAN FROM SARAJEVO (GOSPOĐICA) AND THE DAMNED YARD (PROKLETA AVLIJA) BY IVO ANDRIĆ <p>This paper presents the analysis results of syntactic and semantic features of constructions with the preposition po in The Woman from Sarajevo (Gospođica, 1945) and The Damned Yard (Prokleta avlija, 1954) by Ivo Andrić. The main goal of the research was to determine the meanings and functions of these constructions in the novels that form the corpus of the research, but also to try to expand and supplement, on the basis of selected examples, the previous syntactic and semantic analyses of the preposition po in our older and also more recent grammars and linguistic articles. By using both the theoretical framework of cognitive semantics and the theoretical foundations of more traditional approaches to the meaning of prepositions, 298 constructions (213 from The Woman from Sarajevo and 85 from The Damned Yard) were analysed, and it was concluded that the language of Andrić’s works, at least when it comes to constructions with the preposition po, is not different from the contemporary Serbian language. Namely, it was observed that there are more locative than accusative constructions with the preposition po, and that the most frequent are the spatial locative and the base/criterion locative. At the end of the paper, we pointed out the non-prepositional function of the word po.</p> Goran B. Milašin Copyright (c) 2023 Fri, 30 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0200 PHRASEOLOGISMS IN THE NOVEL MEDEA. VOICES BY CHRISTA WOLF – ORIGINAL AND TRANSLATION. A CONTRIBUTION TO DISTINGUISHING BETWEEN CONSTRUCTIVE PHRASEOLOGY AND TRANSLATOLOGY <p>There are relatively few phraselogisms in the novel Medea. Voices by Christa Wolf. They appear mainly as lexicalised verbal phrases, possibly with a verb synonym as a hyperonym; in addition, there are also occasional, non-lexicalised phrase-formatives to find. Their number and structure changes in translations from German into ʻBosnianʼ or the Serbian language; in Medeja. Glasovi, translated by Vahidin Preljević, lexicalised verbal phrases prevail, some of them absolutely equivalent to the lexical units (LU) in the original text, others only partially. In the second, Serbian text, under the same name – Medeja. Glasovi, translated into Serbian by Mirjana Milošević-Wittmann, the number of phraseologisms decreases; instead of verbal phrases as formatives, the author uses verbs which are only partially equivalent to the units in the original text. Compared to V. Preljević’s LU-phrasemes, these are partially synonymous. As a result, the text loses some of its creativity and expressivity.</p> Božinka Petronijević Copyright (c) 2023 Fri, 30 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0200 ENGLISH INDEFINITE PRONOUN ANY AND ITS SERBIAN TRANSLATION EQUIVALENTS <p>This study aims to analyse a contrastive relation between the English indefinite pronoun any and its Serbian equivalents. Beside the simple pronoun any, the study also focuses on how its compounds with other words – nouns (-body, -thing), numerals (-one) and interrogatives (-where) are performed and translated into Serbian. In this sense, the study is result-oriented. In order to reveal the equivalence relevance and equivalence distribution in practice, the analysis was based on a parallel corpus. The source text ʻThe Sense of an Endingʼ by J. Barnes was confronted with the corresponding target text in Serbian ʻOvo liči na krajʼ, to investigate the appropriate forms.</p> <p>Although belonging to different language families, English and Serbian have shown a significant degree of similarities and differences among the elements in scope. Indefinite pronouns are a linguistic universal. Thus they occur systematically in both English and Serbian. Nevertheless, the Serbian pronominal equivalents are not categorised only as indefinites, but they also have a negative (niko, ništa, nikakav), free-choice (neko, nešto, neki) and universal functions26 (svako, bilo koji, bilo kakav). There is rarely any reciprocity in a direct Serbian implication for each English pronoun – an English indefinite pronoun usually has numerous Serbian equivalents. The proportion of the pronominal and non-pronominal (adverbs, particles, prepositional phrases, etc) Serbian equivalents is 2:1. Zero equivalence has appeared to be unexpectedly frequent – predominantly in negative and interrogative contexts. But even when the indefinites are not explicitly translated, due to stylistic and pragmatic differences between the two languages, there is equivalence at a syntactic level. The analysis revealed various equivalents, but they can be roughly brought down to the following: any is mostly omitted in Serbian negatives, and interrogatives, and translated as svaki in affirmatives; anything is translated as ništa in negatives, išta in interroatives and nešto in affirmatives; anyone is translated as niko in negatives, and iko in affirmatives; anybody is translated as bilo ko in affirmatives; anyway is translated as bilo kako bilo in affirmatives; anywhere is translated as ikud in negatives. Such an asymmetry of equivalence shows that there is not obvious and apparent compatibility between English and Serbian indefinite pronouns.</p> <p>The aim of this paper has therefore been to offer a better understanding of the various forms among the corresponding English and Serbian indefinite pronominals, in terms of their practical relevance.</p> Irena M. Pantić Copyright (c) 2023 Fri, 30 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0200 WHAT ARE SHIBBOLETHNONYMS AND DO THEY EXIST IN THE SERBIAN LANGUAGE? <p>Over the last decades, especially in the Slavic countries, onomastic disciplines and their terminologies have significantly improved. Therefore, in ethnonymics – a study of the names of peoples and, in a broader sense, the names of the inhabitants of physiographic and/or administrative regions – not only necessary terms, but also terms whose purposefulness is at best debatable, have been introduced. This paper examines whether such terms include the Bulgarian term govoren etnonim and the Anglophone term shibbolethnonym, which denote ethnonyms motivated by some speech characteristic of the community in question. The analysis is performed from the standpoint of Serbian onomastics and etymology using appropriate examples from different varieties of the Serbian language: the standard, rural vernacular, and informal varieties of urban environments (i.e. colloquial style and youth jargon or slang). Examples are classified into shibbolethnonyms ʻproperʼ, with more or less clear motivation reflected in the imitation of phonological, grammatical and/or lexical features in the speech of another ethnic or regional community (Švabenzi infrm. ‘Germans’), and ʻfalseʼ shibbolethnonyms, with blurred motivation or meaning which only describe the speech characteristics of the Other (Nijemci stnd. ‘Germans’). We particularly point to the examples which, in addition to speech characteristics, (re)produce positive stereotypes about the greatest closely related nation (baćuška ‘a Russian man’) and regional communities of the same, Serbian or Croatian people (đetić ‘a man from Montenegro’; prika ‘a man from Slavonia’, rođo ‘a man from Herzegovina’). Finally, based on the number and importance of the presented examples, it is concluded that the introduction of the notion in question is necessary, even if one takes the view that yet another onomastic term, in addition to many already accepted, may appear undesirable.</p> Milan D. Ivanović Copyright (c) 2023 Fri, 30 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0200 THE POSITION AND ROLE OF LISTENING SKILLS IN ENGLISH FOR SPECIFIC PURPOSES: BUSINESS STUDENTS’ ATTITUDES <p>This paper deals with the role of listening skills in the process of learning English as a foreign language, developing language competences and improving the level of English knowledge for the needs of successful young people in a modern business environment. The broader thematic framework of this research is the development of integrated language skills in teaching English for specific purposes to business students of higher vocational schools in Serbia. In order to determine the role of listening skills in teaching, the following is examined: listening comprehension of professional, complex and long texts; the presence of the teacher as a source of auditory text; student motivation; the role of implicit extracurricular listening skills; the importance of using audio-visual content and exposure to authentic language material in the acquisition of the English language. The theoretical postulates were verified by the research results based on the questionnaire answered by the respondents – business students at the Belgrade Business and Arts Academy for Applied Studies. The results were quantitatively processed using the statistical method, and interpreted and analysed in relation to the theoretical concept presented in the work. Insights gained were used to draw conclusions and to further design and improve the research and teaching contents.</p> Danijela G. Kulić, Ana Ž. Kažanegra Veličković Copyright (c) 2023 Fri, 30 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0200 SOME ASPECTS OF IMPROVING ENGLISH LANGUAGE TEXTBOOKS FOR GEOLOGISTS AT THE UNIVERSITY LEVEL: CLIL VS. ESP <p>Bearing in mind the enormous importance teaching materials have in the language classroom, the paper deals with the analysis of modern approaches to creating foreign language textbooks at the university level. Considering the influence of the English language as a world language in which almost all the latest research and achievements in the field of technical sciences and geology are published, this textbook example is thus based on English as the common language of the largest number of speakers. We believe, however, that it can be further translated into other languages, thus providing students with the opportunity to study the same material in two or more languages, with more success and less cognitive load. Also, it is of great importance that language textbooks go through such academic and practical adjustments that will replace the essential shortcomings of traditional teaching with useful and applicable educational models. Following such goals, the paper tries to: 1) present the importance of developing teaching materials through the principles of visual values, authenticity and scaffolding; 2) clarify and shed light on the essential shortcomings of traditional teaching materials by comparing ESP and CLIL methods, and 3) present practical suggestions for practicing and acquiring the language through three activities adapted to the stated principles.</p> Lidija V. Beko, Dragoslava N. Mićović Copyright (c) 2023 Fri, 30 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0200 CULTURAL PREPONDERANCE OR SEMANTIC DUE DILIGENCE: TWO SIDES OF THE SAME COIN WITH A CONCEPTUAL TWIST <p>Just as every culture is autonomous in the creation of its social values, it is likewise self-governing in the creation of customs and beliefs that define it. Some of those self-defining creeds are strongly entrenched in the use of language and communication. When an American executive places his/her feet on the desk, the message of authority and relaxation that is being sent is readily understood, while the same gesture in an Arabic country would have a totally different implication, one of disdain and insult. Such implications can be culture specific or culture ubiquitous. To better illustrate the dichotomy, it would be useful to recall Grice’s views on the efficiency of communication as being dependent on adherence to four maxims. In his portentous article ‘Logic and Conversation’ (1975), he shows that prudence and intellect empower human kind in an obliging way to successfully generate and construe messages that are sent via conversational implicatures. This paper aims to explore the fine line that balances these two facets within the realm culture and translation.</p> Dejan M. Milinović, Emir Z. Muhić, Dalibor Kesić Copyright (c) 2023 Fri, 30 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0200 LANGUAGE AND GENDER – MALE AND FEMALE LANGUAGE PATTERNS IN THE GREEK SERIES MHN APXIZEIΣ THN MOYPMOYPA <p>Television is a dominant medium that can influence one’s attitude and social ideologies formation since it reflects sociolinguistic reality and maintains language ideologies and existing social stereotypes. For that reason, we can mention so-called female and male language patterns and their main characteristics, which are to a great extent associated with social power, i.e. the role that an individual has in his social community or community of practice. This paper aims to examine whether the Greek media and more specifically, the Greek TV series promote so-called male and female language patterns, as well as social stereotypes directed towards women. In this paper, we analysed the linguistic behaviour of the protagonists of the Greek series Mην αρχίζεις την μουρμούρα. Qualitative non-experimental research based on the analysis of linguistic behaviour at the level of the characters‘ lexical choice, Vaso and Charis showed that their choice of language patterns is proportional to their social or professional status. In addition, we noticed the presence of certain social stereotypes, while it is evident that the use of stereotypical-female language patterns is associated with a hierarchically lower social position.</p> Maja G. Baćić Ćosić Copyright (c) 2023 Fri, 30 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0200 TRANSLATING THE ZEITGEIST: ZEROCALCARE’S GRAPHIC NOVELS IN BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA <p>This paper investigates the problem of transferring cultural elements in literary translation. The issue is primarily examined on examples of the Bosnian translation of references from popular culture in the graphic novels of the Italian comic book author Zerocalcare. Two groups of cultural expressions were analysed: national cultural expressions, related to the Italian cultural environment, and generational cultural expressions, related to members of a certain age, not a territory. Given that the author, in his autobiographical narrative approach, makes extensive use of references from popular culture, which evoke in the reader a sense of collective belonging to the same community, the translation analysis aims to examine the strategies used in the translations of Zerocalcare's graphic novels in Bosnia and Herzegovina to show the importance of transferring the same ʻspirit of the ageʼ that prevails in the author's original poetics to the target language.</p> Anja Đ. Pravuljac Copyright (c) 2023 Fri, 30 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0200 SERBIAN ENGLISH THROUGH THE LENS OF THE ELF RESEARCH PARADIGM <p>Linguists around the world have been researching international English for a long time, forming three paradigms of thought and research – English as an International Language (EIL), World English (WE) and English as a Lingua Franca (ELF). The aim of this paper is to present a review of the research conducted so far regarding English in Serbia and, thus, to offer insight into the inner workings of Serbian English, all in the light of ELF research. Bearing in mind that research within the ELF paradigm framework is not carried out often in Serbia, all the studies presented in this paper view the Serbian English variety as learners’ language. The elimination of contrastive studies was taken as the basic criterion for literature selection, which made it possible to compare the Serbian linguists’ studies with the ELF paradigm framework. Studies within the scope of phonetics/phonology and pragmatics were found. As regards to phonetics and phonology, papers of only two authors fit in with the established criterion. The findings of their studies confirm that Serbian English speakers have acquired the phonetic features necessary for international communication, i.e. the ELF phonetic core. Nonetheless, it was not possible to compare Serbian English pragmatic studies with ELF research – ELF studies involve spoken corpora, while Serbian English studies encompass questionnaires and interviews. Therefore, there is much to be discovered about the Serbian variety of English. Conducting further research into Serbian English within the ELF paradigm would allow comparison with ELF standards and unveil those linguistic elements which students in Serbia need to acquire in order to participate in international communication more efficiently.</p> Tamara P. Tošić Copyright (c) 2023 Fri, 30 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0200 REVIEW OF (CRITICAL) LITERATURE ABOUT BILINGUALISM <p>The topic of bilingualism has always been an object of interest in linguistic circles, especially today in the time of globalisation or the “third epoch”, when borders of states haven’t always implied the boundary of the use of a particular language. In addition to the fact that research on this phenomenon covers a wide range of hypotheses and perspectives from which bilingualism is analysed, it increasingly involves developing countries, multicultural and multilingual environments. Numerous scientists have investigated the process of first and second language acquisition, some have observed in which environments and under what conditions bilingualism occurs, and this group includes scientists who have done research on bilingual children in the school system whose attitudes will be stated in this paper.</p> <p>This work provides an overview of the basic conclusions from theoretical and empirical studies on the topic of bilingualism, through a review of research in which attention is drawn to the traditionally neglected or insufficiently explored extralinguistic factors and their influence on the development or obstruction of bilingualism. The aim is to come to a conclusion about the different competences of bilingual children and the conditions that affect the development of bilingualism in early childhood and in children of school age. Some of the definitions of bilingualism are primarily listed, then the functions of language as well as the relationship between the first and second languages, the influence of parents and culture on the early development of bilingualism are explained. In the final part of the paper, practical advice for helping bilingual children is given, based on a literature review on this topic. Therefore, we conclude that the article discusses current and scientifically relevant issues: types of bilingualism, as well as its socio-pedagogical implications.</p> Mina Z. Dragaš Copyright (c) 2023 Fri, 30 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0200 THE BINDING FORCE OF ENGLISH: BLURRING THE BOUNDARIES <p>Preface</p> Emir Z. Muhić Copyright (c) 2023 Fri, 30 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0200 ADDRESSING TRUTH VALUES IN WRITTEN CORPORA – A B&H CASE STUDY <p>This paper approaches the notion of truth( fulness) within the written media discourse, namely the three B&amp;H daily newspapers. Aimed at researching computeraccessible online articles published in the chosen three time frames, the paper focuses on narratives containing the keyphrase “Alan Šeranić” and the representation of the notions of values of trust and confidence found in extracts which contain both the chosen keyphrase and examples of news values. The results show that the attitude towards the researched keyphrase changes both in accordance with the time frames of its use and in accordance with the geographical area of the publication source.</p> Željka Lj. Babić Copyright (c) 2023 Fri, 30 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0200 MORPHOLOGICAL PRODUCTIVITY OF ADJECTIVE-FORMING PREFIXES IN ENGLISH AT THE LEVEL OF WORD-FORMATION RULES <p>This paper studies the morphological productivity of adjective-forming prefixes at the level of word-formation rules. The productivity at the aforementioned level is the union of the productivity at the level of word-formation types and morphological types. The aim of the paper is to offer pieces of information on the interaction of different concepts within different word-formation types together with the morphological aspect through different morphological types. We find 267 examples of adjectives and analyse 31 prefixes interacting with various simple or complex adjectives in the corpus comprised of news, literary, academic and TV registers. After analytic, descriptive and statistical methods, we conclude that they fall into 5 different conceptual categories, i.e., wordformation type clusters (Quality, Location, Quantity, Time and State). The majority of clusters show that the stem is determining the conceptual category while prefixes refine it. The highest productivity rates are recorded with such word-formation types. The only exceptions are Quantity and Time where the conceptual category depends on the prefixes and stems equally. The results from the morphological analyses show that most of the prefixes are inserting additional semantic pieces of information, usually recording the highest PR and not changing the conceptual category of the stem and appearing within one or multiple clusters, with exceptions for Quantity and Time.</p> Maja M. Žarković Mccray Copyright (c) 2023 Fri, 30 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0200 DISCURSIVE CONSTRUCTION OF IDENTITY IN NIGERIAN NEWSPAPER REPORTS ON PIPELINE VANDALISM <p>Scholarly works on pipeline vandalism have paid extensive attention to empirical questions of causes and consequences. But there remains a dearth of studies on the representation of the acts of vandalism in newspapers, which is necessary for evaluating what message about the problem is being disseminated to the citizens and how that could contribute to resolving the problem or sustaining it. This paper examines the identity construction for critical social actors in Nigerian newspaper reports on pipeline vandalism. Sixteen –news samples were purposively selected from three newspapers: The Tide, New Waves, and The Guardian published between 2015 and 2019. Theoretically, the study is anchored on a combination of Fina’s (2011) identity process and van Dijk’s (1995, 2006a, 2006b) in-group/out-group description. The analysis involved accounting for the deployment of group self-schemata (van Dijk, 1995, 2005) and ideological strategies (van Dijk, 2006) in realising the three identity processes of indexing, positioning, and local occasioning established by Fina (2011). The study finds that through a combination of media identity ascription and social actors’ positive-self description in the news reports, each of the major stakeholders in the conflict assumes an identity of innocence and responsible entity while shifting the blame to others. It concludes therefore that this could be responsible for the difficulty in ending the conflict.</p> Mathias O. Chukwu Copyright (c) 2023 Fri, 30 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0200 MATTHEW ARNOLD’S ‘THE FORSAKEN MERMAN’ AND ‘THE NECKAN’AS REFLECTIONS OF VICTORIAN FEARS <p>Based on folk tales of Northern European nations, Arnold’s poems ‘The Forsaken Merman’ (1849) and ‘The Neckan’ (1853), both tell a story of human women who marry sea creatures, mermen, and replace their home on the land with the mermen’s underwater world. By crossing the boundaries between their worlds, they cause numerous problems, most significantly the tension resulting from their different religious beliefs. In ‘The Forsaken Merman’, Margaret, the merman’s wife, fearing that her soul will be damned because of her marriage to a pagan, decides to rejoin the human world on the most important Christian holiday, Easter. In ‘The Neckan’, in order to comfort his wife, the Neckan goes to the human world to find a priest who would be willing to baptise him, but he is rejected because he is a ‘monster’ who cannot be saved.</p> <p>The paper will examine the way in which Arnold’s poems reflect the fears of the Victorian era as well as his own anxieties. This will be accomplished by comparing the two opposite worlds of the poems – the human world of everyday activities, rules, laws, and expectations; and the mermen’s home, the mysterious, colourful, and peaceful world of sea-beasts. In addition, the paper will analyse the reversal of traditional gender roles and re-examine literary, cultural, and social stereotypes. The paper will also attempt to find a connection between the main topics of these poems and Arnold’s life and career of a poet and literary critic.</p> Dijana D. Tica Copyright (c) 2023 Fri, 30 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0200 RHETORIC AND POLITICS – THE POWER OF WORDS IN SHAKESPEARE'S JULIUS CAESAR <p>Shakespeare’s play Julius Caesar emphasises the connection between rhetoric and politics. Some scholars, like Gayle Greene and Kim Ballard, point out that rhetoric in Julius Caesar is extremely important for the central political problems and character analysis. They also argue that Shakespeare implicitly criticises and condemns rhetoric that hides moral and political truth. Language is the most influential tool for seizing power in the play. Shakespeare well understands that power comes from those politicians who know how to manipulate the passions of the common people. Shakespeare’s soldiers are at the same time skilful politicians who, by manipulating particular words and gestures, try to attain their own ambitious goals. Funeral speeches offer Brutus and Antony a chance to convince people of the value of their own ideology through the power of spoken words. Describing Caesar’s murder as the result of the conspirators’ efforts to maintain order in Rome, Brutus uses prose and parallelisms to create a sense of balance. Using blank verse, apostrophe, repetition and irony, Antony affects the feelings of the Roman people and causes them to revolt. Shakespeare emphasises that mastering rhetoric results in strong political power and control.</p> Tatjana A. Dumitrašković Copyright (c) 2023 Fri, 30 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0200 SEMANTIC AND PRAGMATIC FEATURES OF OBVIOUSLY AND APPARENTLY <p>In this paper we are going to show how disjuncts obviously and apparently from the same category of truth-orientated disjuncts behave in different contexts. We are also going to measure the frequency of their occurrence, determine the meanings they convey and observe the position they take. Both disjuncts ‘present comment on the truth value of what is said, expressing the extent to which, and the conditions under which, the speaker believes that what is saying is true' (Quirk et al, 1985:p.620). The primary function of these two is to modify the whole sentence, but they can also highlight the meaning of the modal expression they are used with. The comment expressed by obviously does not intend to convince the interlocutor to trust the speaker's judgement but to act as an eye-opener for interlocutors to discern the truth themselves based on the evidence given. The comment expressed by apparently relies either on speaker's perception of things or someone else's perception which is not to be believed blindly without questioning. In other words, apparently ’qualifies claims based on reported information and inference' (Rozumko, 2019). Hence conviction expressed by it drifts from the truth conveying a certain degree of doubt.</p> Jelena Šajinović Novaković, Emir Z. Muhić Copyright (c) 2023 Fri, 30 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0200 PRODUCTIVITY AND FREQUENCY OF SOME LATINATE VERB PREFIXES IN ENGLISH AND SERBIAN <p>The Latin language was the Lingua Franca of the ancient world, and the precursor of Romance languages. As such, it had a huge influence on European languages, and we can find elements of Latin both in English and in Serbian. In this paper, four Latinate verb prefixes with spatial and temporal meanings have been examined, and those are: trans-, re-, intra-, and post-, and their frequencies and productivities in both languages have been calculated. The analysis was made on the English corpus BNCweb, and the Serbian corpus srWaC, based on the hypothesis that these prefixes would be more frequent and productive in English, which was more exposed to Latin and Romance languages.</p> Jasna M. Jurišić Roljić Copyright (c) 2023 Fri, 30 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0200 ANIMAL SIMILES EXPRESSING HUMAN TRAITS IN ENGLISH AND SERBIAN <p>This paper provides a contrastive analysis of adjectival as … as similes in English and adjectival comparisons with kao in Serbian, in which the tenor is a human being and the vehicle is an animal stereotypically associated with the given trait, to examine the extent to which specific groups and types of animals are used to express the same or similar human traits in the two languages. A total of 69 English and 39 Serbian similes motivated by animals were examined and categorised according to the meaning of the adjectives used for comparison. The analysis shows that they are used to express a wide range of human characteristics, including behaviour, prowess, state and appearance. Almost half of the English similes and a third of the Serbian similes refer to behaviour, and more than half of the similes in each category in both languages have a negative connotation. Wild animals are more often attributed prowess and power, while farm animals are predominantly seen with subservient features. The findings are indicative of and congruent with the important role that animals play in human language perception. Animal similes not only provide a colourful and creative way of expressing human characteristics but also reflect cultural attitudes towards certain traits and animals.</p> Dejan M. Milinović Copyright (c) 2023 Fri, 30 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0200 FOREIGN LANGUAGE TEACHING IN A DIGITAL ENVIRONMENT: TEACHERS' ATTITUDES AND BELIEFS <p>Taking into account that traditional foreign language teaching is being moved to a virtual environment, the obligations of teachers are changing constantly. Their main tasks are to accept new technologies and develop their digital literacy. However, whether teachers will apply ICT in teaching practice depends on their personal and pedagogical attitudes and beliefs. When teachers’ attitudes and beliefs are positive, new technologies become one of their important teaching materials. The opposite of this, with negative attitudes and beliefs about applying ICT in teaching, teachers reject them and do not enable students to acquire new skills and knowledge in a virtual environment. In that sense, we wanted to examine the foreign language teachers’ attitudes about the use of ICT digital tools in Serbia. The results are obtained by the inferential analysis which is used to confirm or refute hypothesis about the possible conditioning of the identified factors. The results showed that positive attitudes of teachers have a positive effect on learning in a digital environment, but also that positive attitudes increase significantly with their education for the use of ICT. Finally, it was shown that teachers employed at the university have more negative attitudes about the advantages of language learning in a digital environment, in contrast to teachers employed in primary and secondary schools and in foreign language schools. In support of this, it is observed that training in this field is also necessary for teachers who work at faculties in order to increase awareness of the value of new technologies in the teaching process.</p> Milena M. Vidosavljević Copyright (c) 2023 Fri, 30 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0200 FORSTER’S ITALIAN NOVELS AS A TESTGROUND FOR A PASSAGE TO INDIA <p>M. Forster is one of the authors whose auto-referentiality manifests itself on several levels, from the choice of themes regarding his novels and short stories, over his styllistic features, leitmotifs, symbols, and clear social engagement with concern to major global issues, to the transtextuality of his characters as, probably, the most outstanding one.</p> <p>Through the prism of some key notions of colonial/postcolonial discourse, the paper deals with Forster's 'Italian novels' (A Room with a View and Where Angels Fear to Tread) as a testground for some of the themes and motifs elaborated in A Passage to India.</p> Branko Č. Crnogorac Copyright (c) 2023 Fri, 30 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0200 ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLE OF EKPHRASIS IN ROMAN HISTORIOGRAPHY. DESCRIPTION OF THE GREAT FIRE OF ROME (TACITUS, ANN. XV, 38) <p>Ekphrasis, a stylistic figure characteristic of epic poetry, has also found its application in Roman historiography. Namely, the Roman historian Tacitus and his work Annals are known for its highly stylised poetic language. Tacitus' language – color poeticus, is full of rhetorical and stylistic figures with which this historian portrays events from the past. The author's narrative in visual images – faithful descriptions of people, events, battles, objects and phenomena – leaves a strong impression on readers. This pictorial expression in ancient times was called ekphrasis. Our goal is to explain the basic concept and role of ekphrasis, and then determine its application in a selected example from Tacitus' Annals. There are many examples of ekphrasis, and for the purposes of this work we have chosen the description of The Great Fire of Rome, which occurred during the reign of Emperor Nero. Based on the analysed example, we will see how Tacitus used ekphrasis in his ʻTacitus styleʼ to portray this terrible event.</p> Sanja M. Ljubišić Copyright (c) 2023 Fri, 30 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0200 ТHE TRANSFORMATION OF NAPLES THROUGH CESARE ANNUNZIATA’S MATURATION IN THE TEMPTATION TO BE HAPPY BY LORENZO MARONE <p>In his novel The temptation to be happy, Lorenzo Marone depicts the late maturation of Cesare Annunziata, the main character who, in his seventies, establishes stronger ties with society, including family members. Living in Naples, a city teeming with people, at first he avoids situations where he must interact with others, but this slowly changes through a series of pleasant and unpleasant events. As Cesare Annunciata changes, so does the image of Naples. In this paper, we follow the construction of the image of the city and the opening of views of Naples. We analyse the course of the narration in order to see the writer's procedure by which he successfully avoids the possibility of giving the usual representations of one of the most described cities in literature and forms a representation that will be new and unique.</p> Danijela M. Janjić Copyright (c) 2023 Fri, 30 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0200 TRANSFORMATION OF THE LITERARY HEROINE CELIE FROM A VICTIM TO A SELF-AWARE INDIVIDUAL IN THE NOVEL THE COLOR PURPLE <p>In this paper we focused on the transformation of the main character in the novel The Color Purple, Celie, through the letters she writes to God and her sister Nettie. We contrastively analysed the original text and its Serbian translation. In this paper we followed Celie’s path from an insecure and molested girl, to a confident and emancipated individual which can be observed in the development of her language and writing style. There are three types of letters within the novel: (a) letters written to God; (b) letters which introduce her transformation; (c) letters written to Celie’s sister Nettie. The insecurity of the protagonist is mirrored in her language which is a stylised version of African American English. The Serbian translation employed linguistic features that don’t belong to any particular dialect, but rather represent an approximation of the way undereducated people would speak. The beginning of the novel is characterised by short sentences, repetitive lexicon and the use of the prolonged underscore ______. In the second half of the novel the sentences become longer and the vocabulary richer. Going through the transformation from a victim of dire circumstances to a self-aware individual that accepts herself and her language, Celie represents a character of the Afro-American woman in specific historical circumstances. In addition to Celie, the transformation can be seen in other side characters, especially on the level of onomastics.</p> Milan D. Todorović, Jelena M. Pavlović Jovanović Copyright (c) 2023 Fri, 30 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0200 ON POSTHUMOUSLY PUBLISHED FRAGMENTS OF THE THIRD VOLUME OF THE BOOK ENTITLED ROBSTVO U SLOBODI ILI OGLEDALO PRAVDE U BOSNI (SLAVERY IN FREEDOM OR MIRROR OF JUSTICE IN BOSNIA) BY GAVRO VUČKOVIĆ KRAJIŠNIK <p>This paper focuses on fragments of a 3rd volume book entitled Robstvo u slobodi ili ogledalo pravde u Bosni (Slavery in Freedom or Mirror of Justice in Bosnia, 1910) by Gavro Vučković Krajišnik, a writer and a cultural actor who lived in Bosnia and Herzegovina, whose active years encompassed the middle of the 19th century. This research task consists of an analysis and critical evaluation of the aesthetic and stylistic range of the aforementioned texts within the context of Vučković’s oeuvre. Results reveal that the text in question corresponds at the designated levels with the 2nd volume of the same book, published in 1872, which precedes it in terms of chronology and in which the author reaches an artistic and aesthetic pinnacle.</p> Danijela Jelić Copyright (c) 2023 Fri, 30 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0200 A DISCURSIVE APPROACH TO TEACHING GERMAN LITERATURE ON THE EXAMPLE OF THE NOVEL BRICKS AND MORTAR BY CLEMENS MEYER <p>The presented qualitative content analysis in this paper refers to the aspirations of modern didactics of foreign literature towards discursive, multimedia and constructive approaches to literary texts. The criteria for the selection of literary texts in teaching point to the fact that the novel ʻBricks and Mortarʼ by Clemens Meyer is an adequate choice for university literature teaching, both for the analysis of the discourse and for achieving the set teaching goals. The main figures in the novel belong to the milieu of prostitution, shown both from the point of view of women and from the point of view of pimps. The internal monologues, the flow of thoughts and the dizzying change of the narrative perspective enable a detailed psychological picture of the characters and the impossibility of dividing them into ʻgoodʼ and ʻevilʼ. What is ʻevilʼ is woven into modern society where the only God is – money. The applied qualitative methodology deals with a case study, which is composed by fourth year students of German Studies at the Faculty of Philology and Arts of the University of Kragujevac. The presented classes were held in the summer semester of the academic year 2021/2022. The goals of the class are strengthening the existing literary competences and acquiring new literary competences, especially the competence of independent reading, independent individual understanding of the text, independent decision-making about the literary value of the literary text and conscious acceptance of the ambiguity of the text. Special attention is drawn to the conscious mastery of discursive comments. The main discourses of the novel are sex, power, prostitution and money. These topcis were broken down by students into subtopics, presented in multimedia presentations. In the conversation after (Anschlussgespräch), an attempt was made to transfer the fictitious world of the book to the so-called ʻrealʼ world that surrounds us. The respondents showed a high level of literary and life knowledge at their disposal. It is believed that mastering the aforementioned competencies is essential for future German as a foreign language teachers. It enables them not only to independently choose literary texts, goals and methods in their own teaching, but also to teach and transfer discursive competences to their students, thereby educating them in a humanistic and democratic spirit.</p> Marina M. Petrović-Jilih Copyright (c) 2023 Fri, 30 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0200 MEASURE AND EXCESS: AHMED NURUDDIN – TRANSFORMING APOLLO INTO DIONYSUS <p>This paper deals with Apollo and Dyonisian elements in dervish Ahmed Nuruddin's characterisation. This paper analyses the dervish Ahmed Nuruddin in light of Nietzche's understanding of Apollo and Dionysus deities in terms of their divine roots originating from ancient Greek mythology without any intention whatsoever to present Nietzche's entire philosophical system on the relationships between Dionysus, Greek tragedy, and the connections between art and nature with these principles. The dichotomy will be analysed on the example of the Serbian novel, Death and the Dervish written by Meša Selimović. The paper tackles the characterisation of the literary hero, protagonist Ahmed Nuruddin as a bridge between dervish-Apollo to Nuruddin-avenger, which is Dionysus focusing on revenge resulting in human and moral destruction caused by hatred, the opposite of Ahmed Nuruddin˙s neutrality, while performing the dervish duty. The avenger Nuruddin, the one surfacing after the murder of his sibling, will be considered Dionysus in light of an injustice inflicted on him by Harun's murder, a flywheel for his revenge. Special emphasis will be placed on Nuruddin's human defeat – moral decadence in the form of his transfiguration from a priest to a Machiavellian character. Taking Nietzche's understanding of Hellenic tragedy into consideration, this paper aims to prove Ahmed Nuruddin turning Apollo into Dionysus.</p> Marija Terzić Copyright (c) 2023 Fri, 30 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0200 CHRONICLES OF HARDSHIPS OF THE SERBIAN LANGUAGE ON THE TERRITORY OF KOSOVO AND METOHIJA: A LIVING TESTIMONY OF SUFFERING AND FAITH <p>Приказ</p> Дијана Црњак Copyright (c) 2023 Fri, 30 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0200 THE SIGNIFICANCE OF SERBIAN ORTHODOX PRIESTS AND MONKS IN THE 19THAND 20TH -CENTURY SERBIAN LITERATURE <p>Приказ</p> Соња С. Ђорић Copyright (c) 2023 Fri, 30 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0200 NEW ERA WRITERS AND SPIRITUAL LEADERS <p>Приказ</p> Милица М. Алексић Copyright (c) 2023 Fri, 30 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0200 FOUNDATIONS OF METHODOLOGY OF SERBIAN AS A FOREIGN LANGUAGE <p>Приказ</p> Мијана Ч. Кубурић Мацура Copyright (c) 2023 Fri, 30 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0200 POLYSEMIC LEXIC IN THE SERBIAN LANGUAGE: VERBS, NOUNS, AND ADJECTIVES <p>Приказ</p> Милош М. Кецман Copyright (c) 2023 Fri, 30 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0200 SIGNS OF RESISTANCE: LITERATURE AS A DEFENDER AND CORRECTIVE OF LIBERAL THOUGHT <p>Приказ</p> Јелена Г. Рељић Copyright (c) 2023 Fri, 30 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0200 ON THE BOOK OF PROCEEDINGS IN HONOUR OF PROF. MIRKO SKAKIĆ, PHD <p>Приказ</p> Јелена Д. Раца Copyright (c) 2023 Fri, 30 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0200