• Diana Lj. Prodanović Stankić University of Novi Sad Faculty of Philosophy, English Department
  • Bojana M. Jakovljević University of Novi Sad Faculty of Philosophy, English Department



EFL, multiliteracies, multimodal approach, reading skills, comprehension


In EFL, developing literacy is primarily based on improving reading skills, which is quite problematic for millennials, regardless of their proficiency levels, since they seem to be more used to video input than texts. Drawing on the theoretical concept of multiliteracies (New London Group 1996), introduced to outline a specific pedagogic framework for rethinking the future of language education, this paper discusses the results of a study conducted at the Department of English Studies, University of Novi Sad. The main aim of the study was to identify and determine the primary problems students majoring in English have while doing reading text-based comprehension tasks, and to compare the results with comprehension tasks that combine text and video input. Even though teaching and learning are by definition multimodal, particularly in the field of EFL, since both processes imply the use of different modes (speech, writing, gesture, image, sound), at higher levels of education these modes do not seem to be equally present. This study suggests some theoretical and practical directions towards integrating multimodal approaches in developing literacy in order to promote positive learning outcomes of EFL students.


Bartolic, Silvia K. et al. (2021), “A multi-institutional assessment of changes in higher education teaching and learning in the face of COVID-19”, Educational Review, 73, 1, 1-17.

Barton, David (1994), Literacy: An Introduction to the Ecology of Written Language. Oxford: Blackwell.

Barton, David, and Hamilton, Michael (2000), “Literary practices”, in David Barton et al. (eds.), Situated Literacies: Reading and Writing in Context (pp. 2–15). London: Routledge.

Birch, Barbara (2007), English L2 reading: Getting to the bottom (2nd edition). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Bowen, Tracey (2017), “Assessing visual literacy: a case study of developing a rubric for identifying and applying criteria to undergraduate student learning”, Teaching in Higher Education, 22,

CEFR (2001), Council of Europe, Common European framework of reference for languages: learning, teaching, assessment, Cambridge: Press Syndicate of the University of Cambridge.

Cohen, Andrew D., Tomas A. Upton (2006), “Strategies in responding to the new TOEFL reading tasks”, ETS Research Report Series, i‒162.

Cummins, Jim (1981), Bilingualism and Minority Language Children. Toronto: Ontario Institute for Studies in Education.

Cummins, Jim (2005), “Teaching for Cross-Language Transfer in Dual Language Education: Possibilities and Pitfalls”, Paper presented at TESOL Symposium on Dual Language Education: Teaching and Learning Two Languages in the EFL Setting, Bogazici University Istanbul, 23 September 2005.

Guichon, Nicholas, Sinead McLornan (2008), “The effects of multimodality on L2 learners: Implications for CALL resource design”, System, 36, 1, 85–93.

Farias, Migeul Angel, Katica Oblinovic, Roxana Orrego (2011), “Pontos de possível diálogo entre aprendizado multimodal e ensino-aprendizado de línguas estrangeiras”, Trabalhos em Linguística Aplicada, 50, 1, 133–151.

Grabe, William, Frederica L. Stoller (2002), Teaching and researching reading. Harlow: Pearson.

Jenkins, Joseph R., Lynn Fuchs, Paul van den Broek, Christine Epsin, Stanley L. Deno (2003), “Accuracy and fluency in list and context reading of skilled and RD groups: Absolute and relative performance levels”, Learning and Disabilities Research & Practice, 18, 237–245.

Kalantzis, Mary, Bill Cope, Eveline Chan, Leanne Dalley-Trim (2016), Literacies, (2nd edition). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Koda, Keiko (2005), Insights into second language reading. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Knox, John S. (2008), “Online Newspaper and TESOL Classrooms: a Multimodal Perspective”, in L. Unsworth (ed.), Multimodal Semiotics. Functional Analysis in Contexts of Education London: Continuum, pp. 139–158.

Kress, Gunther, Carey Jewitt, Jon Obgorn, Tsatsarelis Charalampos (2001), Multimodal Teaching and Learning: The Rethorics of the Science Classroom. London: Continuum.

Kress, Gunther (2003), Literacy in the New Media Age. London and New York: Routledge.

Lankshear, Colin, Michele Knobel (2006), New Literacies: Everyday Practices and Classroom Learning. New York: Open University Press.

Martinez Lirola, M. (2020). “Multimodal Teaching Proposal in and English as a Foreign Language Subject”, Asian TEFL, 5, 1, 39–52.

Mayer, Richard E. (2005), “Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning”, in Richard E. Mayer (ed.), The Cambridge handbook of multimedia learning, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 31–48.

McKibben, Bill (1989), The End of Nature. New York: Random House Publishing.

Moreno, Roxana, Richard E. Mayer (1999), “Cognitive principles of multimedia learning: the role of modality and contiguity”, Journal of Educational Psychology, 91, 358–368.

Nabhan, Salim, Rahmad Hidayat (2018), “Investigating literacy practices in a university EFL context from multiliteracies and multimodal perspective: A case study”, Advances in Language and Literary Studies, 9, 6, 192-199.

New London Group (1996). “A pedagogy of multiliteracies: Designing social futures”, Harvard Educational Review, 66, 60–92.

Nunan, David (1989), Designing tasks for the communicative classroom, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Pitkänen-Huhta, Anne (2003), Texts and interaction: Literacy practices in the EFL classroom, Jyväskylä: University of Jyväskylä.

Senel, Selma, and Huseyin Can Senel (2021), “Remote assessment in higher education during COVID-19 pandemic”, International Journal of Assessment Tools in Education, 8, 2, 181-199.

Snow, Catherine, Michelle V. Porche, Paton P. Tabors, Stephanie R. Harris (2007), Is literacy enough?: Pathways to academic success for adolescents, Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes.

Topalov, Jagoda (2012), “Strategije čitanja na engleskom jeziku kod studenata – kvantitativna analiza”, u Biljana Radić Bojanić (ur.), Strategije i stilovi u nastavi engleskog jezika, Novi Sad, Filozofski fakultet, 27–39.

Vaarala, Heidi, Juha Jalkanen (2010), “Changing spaces, expanding mindsets: supporting learners of different levels on a multimodal reading comprehension course”, Language value journal, 2, 1, 68–99.

Weir, Cyril J., Hanan Khalifa (2008), “A cognitive processing approach towards defining reading comprehension”, Cambridge ESOL: Research Notes, 31, 2–10.




How to Cite

Lj. Prodanović Stankić , D. ., & M. Jakovljević, B. . (2022). INCORPORATING MULTILITERACIES AND MULTIMODALITY INTO LITERACY INSTRUCTION FOR EFL STUDENTS AT A TERTIARY LEVEL: A CASE STUDY . PHILOLOGIST – Journal of Language, Literature, and Cultural Studies, 13(25), 68–85.